New Energy Vehicle Electric Drive and Power Domain Industry Report, 2023
  • Oct.2023
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Electric drive and power domain research: electric drive assembly evolves to integration and domain control

To follow the development trend for electrified and lightweight vehicles, new energy vehicle electric drive assembles tend to be highly integrated. At present, the mainstream electric drive system integration route is three-in-one technology, integrating motor, ECU and reducer. The technology has overall been mature.    

In terms of the development trend of all-electric drive assembly, electric control system integration tend to be X-in-one deep integration in the future, overall evolving to the "3+3+X platform" (three-in-one electric drive + three-in-one charging and distribution + BMS/VCU/PTC/TMM, etc.). "Six-in-one" products further integrate BMS, VCU, etc. to constitute "seven-in-one" or "eight-in-one" products which combine vehicle thermal management system to become "nine-in-one" or "ten-in-one" products, achieving deep integration of mechanical and power components.

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OEMs work harder to independently develop and manufacture electric drive systems.

At present, electric drive assembles are mainly manufactured by automotive OEMs themselves or provided by third-party suppliers. Automakers that manufacture by themselves are led by Tesla, NIO, BYD, Volkswagen, etc. Some OEMs are also increasing their self-sufficiency ratio. For example, Great Wall Motor which initially adopted UAES' electric drive systems is shifting to independent manufacture through its subsidiary Svolt; Geely which used Nidec’s electric drive systems in early days now begins to independently manufacture through its arm VREMT. Electric drive system suppliers mainly include international giants like Bosch, Magna, BorgWarner, Nidec and ZF, and multiple Chinese suppliers such as Inovance Technology, Jing-Jin Electric Technologies, Huawei, and Jee Technology.  

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OEMs' greater need for self-development has brought about change in conventional electric drive assembly supply and demand relationships.

From OEM’s perspective, electric drive system is a highly customized product, and automakers have different position, power and performance requirements for their vehicle models, which needs to be matched with vehicle systems. Self-developing electric drives therefore can save upstream and downstream communication cost and investment cost for OEMs, and also accelerates model iteration;
From third-party supplier’s perspective, their cost advantage is great. Whether it is for lower cost, faster iteration and lower rejection rate in production, or platform-based production line utilization, third-party suppliers can share cost and thus gain scale cost advantages by supplying to multiple automakers.

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Considering position of their model vehicles, automakers have different technology routes and performance requirements for vehicle power. For example, for mid-to-high-end models that are less sensitive to cost, the priority is given to performance and reliability of electric drive products, so OEMs prefer self-supply system; as for low-to-mid-end models with low value, highlighting procurement cost, self-production costs much for OEMs, and has no cost advantage compared to third-party supply, so OEMs may prioritize third-party supply. In the future, in the electric drive system market OEMs and third-party suppliers will coexist for a long time, and OEMs dominate in the mid-to-high-end model market while third-party suppliers lead in the low-to-mid-end model market. 

Domain control for electric drive systems: evolve from independent power domains to cross-domain fusion and central integration

In the evolution from X-in-one controllers to power domain controllers, at first all powertrain control modules were integrated into a single PCB (multiple master chips/single control board), and then they share a single controller for software algorithm fusion (single master chip/single control board).

In the trend for X-in-one integration, based on original VCU, hardware and software of powertrain control modules such as VCU, BMS, MCU and DC/DC are integrated into one controller through chip integration and algorithm fusion to form a power domain control platform, and higher performance chips are used to support vehicles to enable SOA. Power domain controller will realize centralization of powertrain control decision ends, while sensor and actuator functions will be decentralized to each ECU.

DCU3000, a vehicle power domain controller launched by Tianjin Yidingfeng Powertrain, integrates control functions such as VCU, BMS, and thermal management. This product complies with AUTOSAR 4.2 standard, and supports RTE and non-RTE interfaces at the application layer. It also supports such functions as UDS fault diagnosis and 100M vehicle Ethernet communication. It allows for customization of bootloader brushing process and parameters, and supports FOTA backup and refresh function. It is suitable for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles with 12V power supply systems.

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As OEMs announce their next-generation E/E architectures, vehicle controllers will be further integrated and reduced, and ultimately form a "central computing + zone control" architecture. In the evolution trend of EEA, power domains will be further integrated with other functional domains for cross-domain fusion, including power + body + chassis three-domain fusion, power domain + chassis domain fusion and other solutions, so as to smoothly evolve to centralized architecture. Examples include ZF's vehicle motion domain (VMD) controller, UAES' VMD controller VCU8.5, and SemiDrive's intelligent vehicle control unit VHPC. 

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As a central computer, ZF's VMD controller is designed to integrate vehicle functions in different domains and supports stand-alone functions in a single unit. It coordinates chassis and vehicle functions from a single unit and integrates vehicle body control functions without the need of additional ECUs while reducing complexity. The VMD controller is adaptable for all types of chassis platforms, vehicle motion and body functions, next-generation software defined cars and future domain and zone E/E architectures.

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In April 2023, SemiDrive first introduced SCCA2.0, its future-oriented central computing architecture, to provide underlying references for OEMs. This architecture contains six core units which are interconnected via 10G/1Gbps high-performance vehicle Ethernet, and adopts redundancy architecture, ensuring low-latency high-traffic data exchange and security. Wherein, the intelligent vehicle control unit (VHPC) is a chassis domain + power domain integrated controller, mainly responsible for chassis and power integration and intelligent control. In terms of hardware, the VHPC uses SemiDrive's G9 processor and E3 MCU, with total CPU compute up to 300KDMIPS.  

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In the evolution of automotive E/E architecture, Jingwei HiRain has designed and developed products based on future mainstream centralized architecture. In the 2023 New Product Launch, it announced the new products: Central Computing Platform (CCP) and Zone Control Unit (ZCU).
 
ZCU integrates such functions as body comfort domain control, power system control, air conditioning thermal management, chassis control, primary power distribution, secondary power distribution, isolation switch, gateway, and OTA, which are located in the front/left/right/rear of the cabin. Thereof, FZCU is responsible for I/O signal acquisition and control in body comfort domain, new energy power domain, partial chassis domain and air conditioning thermal management, and it mainly integrates some functions of VCU, such as vehicle thermal management and high-voltage interlock.

CCP, a core computing unit in body and power domains, integrates a range of functions such as central gateway, body comfort domain control, new energy vehicle power control, air conditioning thermal management, vehicle energy management, full-volume data acquisition, OTA update, and SOA services. It complies with ISO21434 international cybersecurity standards and ASIL D functional safety requirements. Currently this product has completed R&D, test and small-batch production, and has built mass production and supply cooperation with 4 mainstream automakers in China. It will be produced in quantities and delivered by the end of 2023.

In terms of power domain controller development, in general OEMs directly take a part in solution design as it involves vehicle control strategy, and differentiation and personalization of vehicle models. As for domain controller development, the current main cooperation mode is that OEMs self-develop core software and third parties supply hardware/underlying driver software.  

Another mode is that OEMs and third parties jointly develop. OEMs can participate in development of control boards, software bottom layer, application layer, integration test, etc. according to their own development capabilities, such as hardware, bottom layer, application layer, and integrated development and test of VCU and BMS.

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On the whole, X-in-one integration of electric drive system pushes originally independent and distributed powertrain control modules towards centralized integration of power domain controllers, and facilitates the integration of powertrain system control from module to system, and then to overall solution. In the future, whether it is electric drive assembly market or power domain controller market, or cross-domain fusion and future central computing + zone control mode in the evolution to next-generation EEA, all the parties in the whole industry chain should work together to promote the rapid development of automotive electric drive assembly and power domain controller in China, and realize win-win cooperation.

1. Electric Drive System Integration Solution
1.1 Mainstream Electric Drive Integration Solution: Three-in-one
1.1.1 Introduction to Electric Drive System
1.1.2 Integration of Electric Drive System
1.1.3 Mainstream Electric Drive Integration Solution: Three-in-one Drive Assembly
1.1.4 Three-in-one Electric Drive Integration Solution (1): Nidec Three-in-one Electric Drive System
1.1.5 Three-in-one Electric Drive Integration Solution (1): Ni200Ex Disassembly Diagram
1.1.6 Three-in-one Electric Drive Integration Solution (2)
1.1.7 Summary of Three-in-one Electric Drive Suppliers and New Products (1)
1.1.8 Summary of Three-in-one Electric Drive Suppliers and New Products (2)
1.1.9 Summary of Three-in-one Electric Drive Suppliers and New Products (3)

1.2 Future Electric Drive Integration Trend: All-in-one Deep Integration
1.2.1 Future Electric Drive System Integration Solution
1.2.2 Key Technology of All-in-one Electric Drive Development
1.2.3 Advantages and Technical Challenges of All-in-one Electric Drive
1.2.4 Strengthening of Demand for Self-developed All-in-one by OEMs results in Changes of Supply/Demand
1.2.5 Core Competitiveness of Tier 1s’ layout
1.2.6 Summary of All-in-One Tier1 Suppliers and Products (1)
1.2.7 Summary of All-in-One Tier1 Suppliers and Products (2)
1.2.8 Summary of All-in-One Tier1 Suppliers and Products (3)
1.2.9 Summary of All-in-One Tier1 Suppliers and Products (4)
1.2.10 Summary of All-in-One Tier1 Suppliers and Products (5)
1.2.11 All-in-One Electric Drive Integration Solution (1)
1.2.12 All-in-One Electric Drive Integration Solution (2)
1.2.13 Electric Drive System Develops from Mechatronic Integration to Power Domain Solution

1.3 Electric Drive System Market Overview and Supply Mode 
1.3.1 Electric Drive System Market Overview (1)
1.3.2 Electric Drive Systems Market Overview (2)
1.3.3 Electric Drive Systems Market Overview (3)
1.3.4 Electric Drive System Market Share (1): Top 10 Motor Supporting Enterprises
1.3.5 Electric Drive System Market Share (2): TOP10 Electronic Control Supporting Enterprises
1.3.6 Electric Drive System Market Share (3): TOP10 Electric Drive System Supporting Enterprises
1.3.7 Main Supply Mode of Electric Drive System
1.3.8 OEM Self-made or outsourced Electric Drive System? (1): OEM Perspective
1.3.9 OEM Self-made or outsourced Electric Drive System? (2): Perspective of third-party manufacturers
1.3.10 OEM Self-made or outsourced Electric Drive System? (3): Summary
1.3.11 Summary of Electric Drive System Supply Chain Information of OEMs (1)
1.3.12 Summary of Electric Drive System Supply Chain Information of OEMs (2)
1.3.13 Power Control Solution of OEMs

1.4 Powertrain Core Control Components - VCU
1.4.1 Electric Drive Assembly Control System - Vehicle Controller VCU
1.4.2 VCU Electronic Control Development Standard
1.4.3 Basic Functions of VCU
1.4.4 List of Basic Functions of VCU
1.4.5 Vehicle Drive Control Strategy of VCU
1.4.6 Core Function of VCU Software of UAES (1): Electric Management Function that can automatically Restore Driving State after Reset is Supported
1.4.7 Core Function of VCU Software of UAES (2): VCU Charging Control Function that Supports Multiple Protocols
1.4.8 Core Function of VCU Software of UAES (3): Low & Medium Temperature Loop Thermal Management Control that Support Charging Preheating
1.4.9 Main Development and Cooperation Mode of Domestic VCU (1)
1.4.10 Main Development and Cooperation Mode of Domestic VCU (2)

2. Powertrain Domain Integration Solution 
2.1 Functional Domain Architecture - Power Domain Controller
2.1.1 Overview of Power Domain Controller 
2.1.1.1 Background of the Birth of Power Domain
2.1.1.2 Evolution Trend of All-in-one Controller to Chip level Integration and Power Domain Controller
2.1.1.3 Difference between Power Domain Controller and All-in-One Controller
2.1.1.4 Power Domain Control Realizes Decision-making Centralization of Powertrain Control
2.1.1.5 Mainstream Integration Solution of Power Domain Control: VCU + BMS + "XCU"
2.1.1.6 Power Domain Control Improves Real-time Communication of Each Controller
2.1.1.7 Technical Requirements for Development of Power Domain Controller Products
2.1.1.8 Functional Safety Development Architecture for Power Domain Controllers
2.1.1.9 Power Domain Integrates VCU, BMS, etc. into Domain Controllers with Multi-core Chip Architecture
2.1.1.10 Electric Vehicle Power Domain Control System Solution (1)
2.1.1.11 Electric Vehicle Power Domain Control System Solution (2)
2.1.1.12 What kind of functions can be controlled by domain? (1): Time scale
2.1.1.13 What kind of functions can be controlled by domain? (2): Function concentration based on time scale
2.1.1.14 what kind of functions can be controlled by domain? (3): Disassembly analysis of real-time control
2.1.1.15 what kind of functions can be controlled by domain? (4): Vehicle and cloud integration (1)
2.1.1.16 what kind of functions can be controlled by domain?  (5): Vehicle and cloud integration (2)
2.1.1.17 Take the motor controller as an example, how do electronic control manufacturers transform to power domain control? (1)
2.1.1.18 Take the motor controller as an example, how do electronic control manufacturers transform to power domain control? (2)
2.1.1.19 Take the motor controller as an example, how do electronic control manufacturers transform to power domain control? (3)
2.1.1.20 Development Advantages of Power Domain Controller
2.1.2 Power Domain Solutions for Commercial Vehicles
2.1.2.1 Commercial Vehicle Domain Architecture
2.1.2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Silicon Carbide Controllers in Commercial Vehicle Applications
2.1.2.3 Commercial Vehicle Intelligent Power System Solution (1): FAW Jiefang Intelligent Power Domain (1) - Four Solution Platforms
2.1.2.4 Commercial Vehicle Intelligent Power System Solution (1): FAW Jiefang Smart Power Domain (2) - Smart Power Domain Products
2.1.2.5 Commercial Vehicle Intelligent Power System Solution (1): FAW Jiefang Smart Power Domain (3) - Product Evaluation Criteria for Smart Power Domain
2.1.2.6 Commercial Vehicle Intelligent Power System Solution (2): Yutong Software and Hardware Integrated Electric Exclusive Platform - Ruikong E Platform
2.1.2.7 Commercial Vehicle Intelligent Power System Solution (2): Yutong Software and Hardware Integrated Electric Exclusive Platform - All-in-One Power Domain Controller
2.1.3 Summary of Power Domain Control Products of OEMs and Tier1s 
2.1.3.1 Development of Power Domain Controllers of Domestic OEMs
2.1.3.2 Summary of Power Domain Controllers of OEMs
2.1.3.3 Power Domain Control Solution and Product Summary of Tier1s (1)
2.1.3.4 Power Domain Control Solution and Product Summary of Tier1s (2)
2.1.3.5 Power Domain Control Solution and Product Summary of Tier1s (3)

2.2 Power Domain Fusion Solution under Cross-domain Trend
2.2.1 Solution 1: Chassis + Body + Power
2.2.1.1 2nd Stage of Power Domain Evolution (1)
2.2.1.2 Three-domain Integration Case (1): Neusoft Reach builds a general-purpose domain controller based on NXP S32G
2.2.1.3 Three-domain Integration Case (2): Huawei Vehicle Control Platform VDC
2.2.1.4 Three-domain (Central Control Domain) Integration Solution of OEMs (1)
2.2.1.5 Three-domain (Central Control Domain) Integration Solution of OEMs (2)
2.2.1.6 Three-domain Integration Solution and Products of Tier1s (1)
2.2.1.7 Three-domain Integration Solution and Products of Tier1s (2)
2.2.2 Solution 2: Chassis Domain + Power Domain
2.2.2.1 2nd Stage of Power Domain Evolution (2)
2.2.2.2 "Skateboard Chassis" Transforms Electric Drive Assemblies: from Software Integration to Hardware Integration
2.2.2.3 Integration Route of Power Domain and Chassis Domain: Three-axis Intelligent Chassis
2.2.2.4 Vehicle Motion Domain Fusion Case (1)
2.2.2.5 Vehicle Motion Domain Fusion Case (2)
2.2.2.6 Vehicle Motion Domain Fusion Case (3)
2.2.2.7 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (1): Motor Control Function Fusion
2.2.2.8 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (2): Battery Management Function Fusion
2.2.2.9 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (3): Charging Control Function Fusion
2.2.2.10 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (4): Battery/Electric Motor/Electronic Control Function Fusion
2.2.2.11 Vehicle Motion Domain Solution and Products of Tier1s (1)
2.2.2.12 Vehicle Motion Domain Solution and Products of Tier1s (2)
2.2.3 Solution 3: Central Computing + Zonal Controller
2.2.3.1 3rd Stage of Power Domain Evolution: Central Control Domain + Zone Architecture
2.2.3.2 Definition of Zonal Controller 
2.2.3.3 Hardware and Software Layers of Zonal Controller
2.2.3.4 Zone Controller PDC Position Distribution
2.2.3.5 Zone Controller (ZCU) Solution of G-Pulse
2.2.3.6 Zone Controller Solution of Yuanfeng Technology

3. Power Domain Control System Supply Chain
3.1 Introduction of VCU/Power Domain Control Industry Chain
3.2 Key Elements of Software and Hardware of Power Domain Controller

3.3 Upstream of Power Domain Control System - Hardware
3.3.1 Core of Power Domain Control System - requirements of main Control MCU
3.3.1.1 Upstream of Power Domain Control System: Hardware Composition  
3.3.1.2 Performance Requirements of Power Domain Control for MCU Chips
3.3.1.3 Requirements for Computing Power of Main Control MCU in Evolution of Power Domain Control System
3.3.1.4 What should pay attention to for selection of Main Control Chip MCU for Zonal Controller? 
3.3.1.5 Main Control Chip Power Domain Integration: iECU Domain Controller Hardware Architecture
3.3.2 Power Domain Main Control MCU Chip Solution and Cases
3.3.2.1 MCU Chip Solution of Vehicle Control Domain (1) - MCU chip based on NXP S32K series 
3.3.2.2 MCU Chip Solution of Power Domain Controller (1): ST Stellar P series MCU
3.3.2.3 MCU Chip Solution of Power Domain Controller (2): Power Domain Controller Solution based on Infineon AURIX TC297TA 
3.3.2.4 MCU Chip Solution of Power Domain Controller (3): MCU chip based on NXP S32E series 
3.3.2.5 MCU Chip Solution of Power Domain Controller (4): Yuntu Semiconductor Domain Control Chip YTM32B1H 
3.3.2.6 Power Domain MCU Chip Design (1): ST's Power Domain Controller Solution based on Stellar P 
3.3.2.7 Power Domain MCU Chip Design (2): ST's VCU/PDCU Hardware Design Solution 
3.3.2.8 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (1): PDC Application Allocation
3.3.2.9 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (2): SMU System Management
3.3.2.10 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (3): RTU0
3.3.2.11 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (4): RTU1
3.3.2.12 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (5): CAN communication - FlexLLCE
3.3.2.13 Reference Design of Power Domain Controller based on NXP S32E (6): Multi-core Communication
3.3.3 Power Domain MCU Market Competition Landscape and Product Selection
3.3.3.1 Localization Substitution Process of Power Domain Control MCU Chip 
3.3.3.2 List of Foreign Power Domain Control MCU Chip Suppliers and Product Selection
3.3.3.3 List of Domestic Power Domain Control MCU Chip Suppliers and Product Selection (1)
3.3.3.4 List of Domestic Power Domain Control MCU Chip Suppliers and Product Selection (2)
3.3.3.5 List of Domestic Power Domain Control MCU Chip Suppliers and Product Selection (3)
3.3.3.6 List of Domestic Power Domain Control MCU Chip Suppliers and Product Selection (4)

3.4 Upstream of Power Domain Control System - Software
3.4.1 Upstream of Power Domain Control System: Software Composition
3.4.2 Development of Power Domain Controller Focuses on Software
3.4.3 ST's VCU/PDCU Software Reference Design
3.4.4 ST's VCU/PDCU Functional Security Design
3.4.5 NXP S32K3-based Software Solution
3.4.6 Software Solution that Power Domain realizes Multi-domain Fusion  
3.4.7 Application Example of Power Domain Software Solution 
3.4.8 Starting from software, how do third-party players transform to power domain control? (Take motor controller as an example)
3.4.9 Starting from software, how do third-party players transform to power domain control? (The choice of AUTOSAR under power domain control)

4. Power Domain Market and Development Trends
4.1 Cooperative Development Mode of Power Domain Control
4.2 China Passenger Car Power Domain Controller Market Size, 2022-2025E
4.3 Development Requirements of Power Domain Control System
4.4 Core Capabilities for Future Development of Power Domain Controllers
4.5 Eight Development Trends of Power Domain (1)
4.6 Eight Development Trends of Power Domain (2)
4.7 Powertrain Technology Trend 1
4.8 Powertrain Technology Trend 2  
4.9 Powertrain Technology Trend 3

5. Powertrain and Control System Layout of OEMs
5.1 BYD  
5.1.1 Evolution of BYD e-platform: from e1.0 to e3.0
5.1.2 BYD e-platform 3.0: Intelligent Power Domain
5.1.3 BYD e3.0 Vehicle System Level Integration: 8-in-1 Electric Powertrain
5.1.4 BYD Vehicle Control Function Integration Solution: Self-research Power Domain Controller
5.1.5 BYD Power Domain Controller: Integrate Drive, Braking and Steering Function
5.1.6 Evolution of BYD’s Intelligent Power Domain: Intelligent Control
5.1.7 Evolution of BYD’s Intelligent Power Domain: Intelligent Customization 
5.1.8 Evolution of BYD’s Intelligent Power Domain: Intelligent Monitoring
5.1.9 Challenges Brought by Intelligent Power Domain Function Integration 
5.1.10 Next-generation EEA: YiSifang Technology Platform with four-motor independent drive as the core
5.1.11 Next Generation EEA: "YiSifang" Multi-Domain Computing + Zone Control Architecture
5.1.12 BYD Dolphin: Power Domain Controller (1)
5.1.13 BYD Dolphin: Power Domain Controller (2)
5.1.14 BYD Yuan: Eight-in-one Powertrain Dismantling (1)
5.1.15 BYD Yuan: Eight-in-one Powertrain Dismantling (2)

5.2 Geely/Zeekr
5.2.1 VCU Evolves to Vehicle Driving Zone Controller
5.2.2 Fusion Path of Vehicle Driving Zone Controller
5.2.3 Fusion Strategy of Vehicle Driving Zone Controller
5.2.4 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (1): Select High Level Solution for Battery/Electric Motor/Electronic Control Function Fusion
5.2.5 Zeekr Power Chassis Domain Fusion Solution (2): Battery/Electric Motor/Electronic Control Function Fusion Architecture
5.2.6 Zeekr: How to Realize Classification Deployment Logic of Power Chassis Domain Function Software Fusion? (1)
5.2.7 Zeekr: How to Realize Classification Deployment Logic of Power Chassis Domain Function Software Fusion? (2)
5.2.8 Zeekr Driving Zone Controller PCMU (1): Product Functions and Features
5.2.9 Zeekr Driving Zone Controller PCMU (2): Function Level
5.2.10 Zeekr Driving Zone Controller PCMU (3): Future Evolution Route
5.2.11 Zeekr Driving Zone Controller PCMU (4): Common Problems and Key Technical Capabilities
5.2.12 Development Challenges and Countermeasures of Driving Zone Controller 
5.2.13 Integration of EDU and Power Domain Controller
5.2.14 Geely Power Domain Controller: Supply Scope of Network Test Items 

5.3 Tesla
5.3.1 Tesla's 1st GEN Domain Architecture: Power Domain in Model S
5.3.2 Tesla's 2nd GEN Quasi-central Architecture: Model 3 Zone Controller Integrates VCU Function
5.3.3 Tesla Model 3: Zone Controller Position Distribution
5.3.4 Tesla Model 3 Power Domain Function Fusion (1): Power Distribution Control for BCM-FH Integrated Thermal Management Related Functions
5.3.5 Tesla Model 3 Power Domain Function Fusion (2): BCM-FH Controller Board Disassembly
5.3.6 Tesla Model 3 Power Domain Function Fusion (3): BCM-RH integrates HVAC, torque control and other functions
5.3.7 Tesla Model Y: 4th GEN Electric Drive Assembly Dismantling (1)
5.3.8 Tesla Model Y: 4th GEN Electric Drive Assembly Dismantling (2) - Motor Controller
5.3.9 Tesla Model Y: 4th GEN Electric Drive Assembly Dismantling (3) - Current Sensor
5.3.10 Tesla Model Y: 4th GEN Electric Drive Assembly Dismantling (4)
5.3.11 Tesla Model Y: 4th GEN Electric Drive Assembly Dismantling (5)
5.3.12 Tesla Battery/Electric Motor/Electronic Control System Suppliers and Self-made Battery Layout

5.4 Changan Automobile
5.4.1 Changan Yuanli "Ultra-Integrated Electric Drive" Products
5.4.2 Changan Yuanli "Ultra-Integrated Electric Drive" Technology (1)
5.4.3 Changan Yuanli "Ultra-Integrated Electric Drive" Technology (2): Micronucleus High Frequency Pulse Heating Technology
5.4.4 VCU Integrated Evolution Route
5.4.5 EPA 1 EEA: Intelligent Vehicle Domain Controller
5.4.6 Future VCU Function Integration Direction: Central Computing Platform
5.4.7 SDA "Central + Ring Network" EEA: Realize cross-domain integration of multiple controllers such as power domain

5.5 Volkswagen
5.5.1 VW MEB Platform: Dual Motor Four Drive (1) -- Front Asynchronous Induction Three-in-one Electric Drive
5.5.2 VW MEB Platform: Dual Motor Four Drive (2) -- Rear Permanent Magnet Three-in-one Electric Drive
5.5.3 VW MEB Platform Electric Drive: Mass Production Cases and Suppliers of SAIC Volkswagen ID.4X
5.5.4 Electric Drive Systems: Technology Evolution Direction
5.5.5 VW MEB Platform: E (3) Architecture ICAS1 Vehicle Control Domain Integrated Power Domain
5.5.6 Connection between Vehicle Control Domain ICAS1 and Intelligent Cockpit Domain ICAS3
5.5.7 VW ICAS1: Vehicle Control Domain Architecture and Supplier
5.5.8 Vehicle Control Domain ICAS1 Dismantling Diagram (1)
5.5.9 Vehicle Control Domain ICAS1 Dismantling Diagram (2)
5.5.10 Vehicle Control Domain ICAS1 Dismantling Diagram (3)
5.5.11 Vehicle Control Domain ICAS1 Dismantling Diagram (4)

5.6 GAC
5.6.1 AEP 3.0 Pure Electric Platform
5.6.2 GAC Aion Electric Drive System: Self-developed and Self-produced Strategy
5.6.3 GAC Aion "Quark Electric Drive" Products
5.6.4 GAC Aion "Quark Electric Drive" Technologies (1): Nanocrystalline-Amorphous Motor
5.6.5 GAC Aion "Quark Electric Drive" Technologies (2): X-PIN Flat Wire Winding
5.6.6 GAC Aion "Quark Electric Drive" Technologies (3): 900V Silicon Carbide Power Module
5.6.7 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (1)
5.6.8 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (2) - Intelligent Hyperconverged Electric Drive
5.6.9 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (3) - E-Drive Intelligent Control
5.6.10 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (4) - Electric Drive Functional Safety Design
5.6.11 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (5) - Power/NVH Optimization
5.6.12 GAC Aion: High-performance Electric Drive Technology Route (6) - Simulation and Test Verification
5.6.13 GAC's Next Generation N-in-1 Electric Drive: Realizing Cross-Domain Integration of Power Domain and Temperature Control Domain
5.6.14 GAC: New Energy Pure Electric Vehicle Control System
5.6.15 GAC: Hybrid Vehicle Intelligent Control Strategy
5.6.16 GAC's next-generation Xingling Architecture: Central Computing Unit is responsible for power control and body control

5.7 Leapmotor 
5.7.1 CTC Battery Chassis Integration and Intelligent Power Domain Control
5.7.2 C01 Variable Architecture Oil Cooled Three-in-One Electric Drive (1)
5.7.3 C01 Variable Architecture Oil Cooled Three-in-One Electric Drive (2)
5.7.4 LEAP3.0 Architecture (1): Central Supercomputing Platform realizes integration of four-domain computing power
5.7.5 LEAP3.0 Architecture (2): Four Domain Fusion Function

5.8 SAIC
5.8.1 SAIC Pure Electric System Platform: Nebula Platform
5.8.2 SAIC Nebula Platform: "Green Core" Electric Drive System
5.8.3 SAIC "Green Core" Electric Drive System (1): H-pin Flat Wire Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
5.8.4 SAIC's "Green Core" Electric Drive System (2): Mechanical Transmission Design and Thermal Management Strategies
5.8.5 SAIC: VCU Fusion under Automotive E/E Architecture Layout
5.8.6 SAIC eTAC Edge Torque Control Technology: VCU and MCU Integration

5.9 BAIC
5.9.1 Powertrain Development 
5.9.2 Powertrain High Power Density
5.9.3 BAIC EMD3.0 Super Electronic Control Technology
5.9.4 BAIC EEA2.0 Platform: Developing Power Domain Oriented by Functional Domain
5.9.5 BAIC Central Integrated Architecture VDC + VIU

5.10 Li Auto
5.10.1 Pure Electric Strategy
5.10.2 800V SiC High Voltage Electric Drive System
5.10.3 LEEA2.0: XCU Central Domain Controller (Power, Chassis, Body)

5.11 Xpeng Motors
5.11.1 XPeng G9 XPower 3.0 Power System
5.11.2 XPeng G9 High Voltage Power Architecture Design (1): Working Analysis of 800V High Voltage System
5.11.3 XPeng G9 high-voltage Power Architecture Design (2): Four Drive System
5.11.4 Xpeng X-EEA 3.0 Architecture: Power Domain Enters Central Supercomputing

5.12 NIO
5.12.1 NIO Full-stack Self-developed Electric Drive System
5.12.2 NIO 2nd GEN Electric Drive System (1)
5.12.3 NIO 2nd GEN Electric Drive System (2): Application of SiC Power Module
5.12.4 NIO ET5T Electric Drive System: Front Induction + Rear Permanent Magnet
5.12.5 NIO ET5T Electric Drive System Dismantling (1): Front Auxiliary Drive Motor Dismantling
5.12.6 NIO ET5T Electric Drive System Dismantling (2): Rear Main Drive Motor Dismantling

5.13 Dongfeng
5.13.1 Self-made Capacity and Production Line Planning of Electric Drive/Electronic Control
5.13.2 iD2 Electric Drive Assembly
5.13.3 New Generation of Electric Drive Products: iD3 Electric Drive Assembly
5.13.4 iD3 Electric Drive Assembly: 70kW ten-in-one Electric Drive

5.14 Neta Auto
5.14.1 Production Mode of Electric Drive Assembly: Self-developed and Self-produced + Open cooperation
5.14.2 Haozhi Strategy 2.0 (1): Full-stack Self-developed Central Computing Platform
5.14.3 Haozhi Strategy 2.0 (2): Haozhi Supercomputing - Fusion Domain Control Form
5.14.4 Power Domain Control: Evolution to Converged Gateway Domain Control HPC
5.14.5 Haozhi Strategy 2.0 (3): Haozhi Electric Drive - 800V SiC Electric Drive System
5.14.6 Three-in-one Electric Drive Assembly

6 Foreign Powertrain Controller and Solution Suppliers 
6.1 Bosch
6.1.1 Profile
6.1.2 Intelligent Driving and Control Business (XC Division) Layout
6.1.3 VCU products (1)
6.1.4 VCU products (2)
6.1.5 VCU products (3)
6.1.6 Cross-domain Vehicle Control Unit

6.2 Vitesco Technologies
6.2.1 Profile
6.2.2 Product Layout in the field of Pure electricity, Embracing Electrification
6.2.3 Evolution Route of New Energy Vehicle Powertrain Control Products
6.2.4: Application Cases
6.2.5 Power Domain Controller (PDCU 200)

6.3 UAES
6.3.1 Profile
6.3.2 Vehicle Controller VCU Product Evolution Route
6.3.3 Vehicle Controller VCU8.1
6.3.4 Launched VCU8.2 for Overseas Markets - Integrating Three Types of Mainstream Charging Protocols
6.3.5 VCU Integration Solution for Cross-domain Integration: Vehicle Motion Domain Controller VCU8.5
6.3.6 Vehicle Motion Domain Controller VCU8.5 (1) - High/Low Voltage Components for Coordinated Control
6.3.7 Vehicle Motion Domain Controller VCU8.5 (2) - Main Functions
6.3.8 VCU Integration Solution Based on Central Integration Architecture (1) - Vehicle Computing Platform VCP
6.3.9 VCU Integration Solution Based on Central Integration Architecture (2) - Zone Controller

6.4 Ecotron
6.4.1 Profile
6.4.2 Partners
6.4.3 Electric Vehicle Controller VCU Products
6.4.4 VCU Product Parameter Comparison (1)
6.4.5 VCU Product Parameter Comparison (2)
6.4.6 Hybrid Vehicle Controller HCU
6.4.7 HCU Product Parameters

6.5 ZF
6.5.1 Profile
6.5.2 Vehicle Motion Domain (VMD) Controller

6.6 Marelli
6.6.1 Profile
6.6.2 Integrated Multi-Domain Controller
6.6.3 Driving Power Domain Controller VDCM

7 Chinese Powertrain Controller and Solution Suppliers 
7.1 HiRain Technologies
7.1.1 Profile
7.1.2 Production Base and Production Mode
7.1.3 Automotive Electronics Product Line Layout
7.1.4 New Energy Power System Business
7.1.5 Vehicle Controller VCU/HCU Function and Supporting Customers
7.1.6 Evolution Route of Passenger car EVCU Product 
7.1.7 Evolution Route of Commercial Vehicle CVCU Products
7.1.8 New energy Powertrain Control System Integration Path
7.1.9 Power Domain Integration Solution Based on Next-Generation E/E Architecture (1)
7.1.10 Power Domain Integration Solution Based on Next-Generation E/E Architecture (2) - Central Computing Platform Product CCP
7.1.11 Power Domain Integration Solution Based on Next-Generation E/E Architecture (3) - Front Cabin Zone Controller FZCU
7.1.12 Functions that can be Realized by ZCU of Each Domain Controller

7.2 Aohai Technology
7.2.1 Profile
7.2.2 Operation Status and R&D Investment in 2022
7.2.3 Global Production Base Layout
7.2.4 Business Layout
7.2.5 New Energy Vehicle Business Field Layout
7.2.6 Power Domain Controller will become the Second Growth Curve

7.3 Neusoft Reach
7.3.1 Profile
7.3.2 Custom Control Unit - xCU Product Solution
7.3.3 EV Power Domain Control Solution VBS
7.3.4 Vehicle Universal Domain Controller Based on Power Domain Application

7.4 China Vagon Automotives Holdings Co., Ltd.
7.4.1 Profile
7.4.2 Multi-domain Controller Platform Solution (1) - Modular and Block Development Method
7.4.3 Multi-domain Controller Platform Solution (2) - Multi-domain Controller Platform Hardware Architecture
7.4.4 Application of Multi-Domain Controller in Power Domain (1) - Fusion of Power Domain on Chassis Domain
7.4.5 Application of Multi-Domain Controller in Power Domain (2) - Power Domain Controller Based on Transmission

7.5 Tianjin Yidingfeng Powertrain Technology Co., Ltd.
7.5.1 Profile
7.5.2 VCU Product Evolution Route
7.5.3 VCU Integration Route
7.5.4 VCU4200 Achieves Localization Replacement
7.5.5 Vehicle Power Domain Controller DCU3000

7.6 Shanghai G-Pulse Electronics Technology
7.6.1 Profile
7.6.2 Automotive Electronics Line
7.6.3 Vehicle Controller VCU
7.6.4 All-in-One Powertrain Controller

7.7 Jee Technology
7.7.1 Profile
7.7.2 Three Stages of Powertrain Integration Technology Development
7.7.3 Power System Related Controllers Tends to be Integrated with Chips 
7.7.4 800V SiC Power Domain Controller

7.8 Beijing Fengzhi Technology Co., Ltd.
7.8.1 Profile
7.8.2 Core Technologies and Advantages of Power Domain Development
7.8.3 Product Layout and Customer Base Analysis
7.8.4 Intelligent Power Domain Controller i-PDCU

7.9 Beijing Sylincom Technology. Co., Ltd.
7.9.1 Profile
7.9.2: Domestic Core General Power Domain Controller VCU
7.9.3: General Power Domain Controller Application Deployment

7.10 Shenzhen Hangsheng Electronics Co., Ltd.
7.10.1 Profile
7.10.2 Customer Base Analysis
7.10.3 New Energy Battery/Electric Motor/Electronic Control System Layout
7.10.4 Vehicle Controller VCU

7.11 Hefei J-Link Automotive Electronics Co., Ltd.
7.11.1 Profile
7.11.2 R&D Progress of 800V Multi-fusion Silicon Carbide Power Domain Controller for Vehicles
 

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