Automotive High-precision Positioning Research Report, 2023-2024
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Autonomous driving is rapidly advancing from highway NOA to urban NOA, and poses ever higher technical requirements for high-precision positioning, highlighting the following:

1. Higher accuracy: urban lanes are changeable and traffic flow is complex. In particular, to achieve urban NOA in complex areas such as urban intersections, it needs centimeter-level high-precision positioning accuracy;

2. Introduction of PPP-RTK: PPP and RTK technologies are unified at the algorithm level for fast, real-time and high-precision positioning. Moreover, PPP-RTK can support both satellite broadcast and mobile communication modes, of which satellite broadcast can use low-orbit satellites;

3. Dual-frequency RTK is mainstream: in the industry there is a common belief that dual-frequency RTK has become mainstream after years of iteration, and it enables higher precision positioning, playing a critical role in the development of urban NOA technology;

4. Deep coupling algorithm is superior: compared with loose coupling and tight coupling technologies, deep coupling can effectively improve the accuracy and reliability of integrated navigation, especially in harsh environments like urban overpasses and roundabouts, and can greatly reduce positioning errors;

5. Introduction of low-orbit satellites: in urban scenarios where signals are often blocked by high-rise buildings and overpasses, the use of low-orbit satellites can enhance signal coverage and further improve reliability of satellite signals.

The application of low-orbit satellites in autonomous driving helps improve accuracy of high-precision positioning.

Low-orbit satellites offer some benefits in the fields of autonomous driving and even intelligent transportation and smart city. For example, in remote areas covered by unstable signals, they are a solution to the problem of insufficient positioning accuracy and real-time connection.

During the 19th Asian Games Hangzhou and the Hangzhou 4th Asian Para Games, Geespace used aerospace technology to support the Hangzhou Asian games, providing stable, safe, and uninterrupted satellite application services for nearly 2 months. On September 3, 2023, Geely delivered more than 2,000 officially designated vehicles to the Asian Games Organizing Committee. These vehicles are equipped with high-precision positioning products provided by Geespace, an arm of Geely. Relying on the high-precision positioning products and services, the location information of each of the vehicles is displayed in real time and accurately on the map of the Traffic Command Center of the Asian Games Organizing Committee, enabling precise management and scheduling of vehicles to ensure the mobility safety of the official designated vehicles for the Asian Games. In addition, some vehicles pack Geespace’s satellite communication terminals, further ensuring mobility safety.

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Geespace: it is a technology start-up under Geely Holding Group and China’s only private commercial aerospace company that has built a commercial closed loop. It has implemented vehicle satellite application products and services on large scale. In June 2022, it successfully launched the first nine self-developed “GeeSAT” satellites at one time.

Based on the self-developed low-orbit satellite system and constellation ground-based data station network, Geespace “GeeSAT” satellites build an intelligent space-time base, and make full use of the Beidou-3 system to provide industry-leading satellite-based high-precision positioning services and satellite communication services.

In the field of high-precision positioning, Geespace’s satellite-based high-precision positioning services have been largely available to vehicles for the first time in the world. On typical autonomous driving routes, Geespace’s satellite-based high-precision positioning services deliver positioning accuracy better than 10 centimeters (CEP95), higher than the industry level of 20 centimeters (CEP95), and up to the world’s leading level.

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In the field of satellite communications, Geespace self-developed the world's first satellite communication terminal for production vehicles, Jishixun?, and has produced and used it in quantities. This terminal was first mounted on ZEEKR 001 FR, providing two-way satellite messaging and satellite call services. In addition, in terms of installation form in vehicles, Geespace has developed a high-throughput satellite Internet terminal featuring "vehicle-terminal" integrated design. The use of phased array technology allows it to be hidden into the existing shape of vehicles, without the antenna protruding. At present, Geespace’s satellite communication integrated vehicle glass antenna has also been tested, making the sunroof of vehicles turn into an antenna that integrates multiple communication capabilities in the future.  

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With the core technologies of GeeSAT and independent R&D capabilities, Geespace has built a full-stack software and hardware integrated product matrix covering data and algorithm services, chip-module-terminal products, and industry solutions, which are widely used in new energy vehicles, consumer electronics like drones, and public service fields. Geespace has built a complete R&D quality management system, achieved full-link management of software and hardware from requirements import to project filing, and then to technology R&D, test and acceptance, and mass production and delivery, expediting the creation of a commercial application closed loop. 

P-box starts mass adoption in vehicles, and major suppliers scrabble for market share.

With regard to installation form of high-precision positioning in vehicles, currently GNSS and IMU are installed separately, integrated into an independent box (P-box), or directly attached into the domain controller. For P-box is calibrated before leaving factory, it features mature process and low cost. It is currently a cost-effective high-precision positioning option for automakers. It has now entered the phase of mass production and delivery. It is expected that for some time to come P-box will gradually become the mainstream installation form of high-precision positioning in vehicles.

In China, mainstream P-box suppliers such as Asensing and DAISCH have spawned P-box and installed it in vehicles. At present, Asensing prevails in the P-box market and its P-box has been widely used by Chinese independent auto brands: 

Hyper GT, the flagship model of Hyper, a high-end luxury brand under GAC Aion, carries Asensing’s high-precision integrated positioning system, enabling centimeter-level high-precision global positioning;
"AD Max Intelligent Driving System" of Li Auto is equipped with P-Box, a high-precision integrated navigation and positioning system developed by Asensing;
Boyue L released by Geely packs P-Box, Asensing’s high-precision integrated positioning system;
NID3.0 advanced intelligent driving assistance system for Changan Deepal SL03 is equipped with P-Box, Asensing’s high-precision integrated positioning system.

As established P-box suppliers secure orders frequently, more players are attracted to enter the market.

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Cxrobot Connect: co-funded by ArcherMind Technology and Tongyi Industry (Shenzhen Tongyi Weichuang Technology), this company is an ecosystem partner of Horizon Robotics. In May 2023, it released a high-precision positioning product P-BOX for L2 and higher-level models, which features industry-leading multi-source signal fusion and positioning accuracy, ultra-high performance, and automotive-grade delivery. 

定位 5.png

High-precision positioning solutions for next-generation electronic/electrical architecture

In the future, the centralization and integration of automotive E/E architecture will be a megatrend. While laying out P-box, some suppliers therefore are also working to develop products that integrate positioning modules into domain controllers.

In addition, OEMs also try hard to pursue lower vehicle hardware cost. The domain controller integration helps to lower the requirements for hardware and increase the complexity of algorithms, so as to ultimately achieve the goal of cost control.

In currant stage there are mainly several ways to integrate high-precision positioning hardware into domain controllers:
1. Integrate IMU separately into the domain control board;
2. Integrate GNSS and IMU separately into the domain control board;
3. Integrate the module composed of GNSS and IMU into the domain control board.

In April 2023, TuSimple launched TS-Box, a domain control centralized perception box that is designed according to commercial vehicle operating conditions, but supports both commercial vehicle and passenger car scenarios. It is expected to be mass-produced and delivered in 2024.

TuSimple TS-Box integrates TuSimple's self-developed autonomous driving domain controller, 4D radar solution, centralized RTK-GNSS/INS positioning module, and perception and positioning fusion algorithms. Compared with purchasing each component separately, TS-Box can cut down the overall cost by about 25%.

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High Precision Positioning Industry Report, 2023-2024 highlights the following:
20120114.gifAutonomous driving high-precision positioning industry (policies & standards, market size, market pattern, etc.);
20120114.gifMain autonomous driving high-precision positioning technologies (GNSS, IMU, GNSS+IMU integrated positioning, etc.) (supplier pattern, technology trends, etc.)
20120114.gifThe main development trends of autonomous driving high-precision positioning technologies (fusion algorithm, PPP-RTK, low-orbit satellite, etc.);
20120114.gifAutonomous driving high-precision positioning in vehicles (new integration modes, installation by OEMs, installation scale, etc.);
20120114.gifClassification of main application scenarios of high-precision positioning in autonomous driving (highway NOA, urban NOA, AVP, autonomous delivery, autonomous trucks, etc.);
20120114.gifHigh-precision positioning basic service companies (technology layout, developments, etc.);
20120114.gifHigh-precision positioning module suppliers (profile, product layout, technology status, product application, etc.).

1 Status Quo of High Precision Positioning Industry
1.1 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Market Size
1.1.1 Estimated Installation of High Precision Positioning in Autonomous Vehicles in China, 2023 
1.1.2 China’s Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Module Market Size, 2023-2027E
1.1.3 Appendix: China’s Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Module Market Size (by Vehicle Type) 
1.2 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Market Pattern 
1.2.1 Types of Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Suppliers 
1.2.2 Types of Autonomous Driving Integrated Navigation Suppliers
1.2.3 Competitive Edges of Products of Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Suppliers
1.2.4 Pattern of Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Suppliers 
1.3 Main High Precision Positioning Technologies 
1.3.1 Technology 1: GNSS (The Most Mature Absolute Positioning Solution)
1.3.2 Technology 1: Evolution of GNSS Application in Intelligent Vehicles  
1.3.3 Technology 1: Localization of GNSS Industry Chain
1.3.4 Technology 1: Summary on GNSS Chips and Suppliers 
1.3.5 Technology 1: Summary on GNSS Modules and Suppliers 
1.3.6 Technology 2: IMU (The Key to Integrated Positioning System)
1.3.7 Technology 2: Common Configurations of IMU 
1.3.8 Technology 2: Inertial Navigation Positioning Architecture of IMU
1.3.9 Technology 2: Price of IMU
1.3.10 Technology 2: Summary on Main IMU Suppliers and Products
1.3.11 Technology 2: IMU Starts the Process of Localization 
1.3.12 Technology 2: Localization of IMU Core Components 
1.3.13 Technology 3: GNSS+IMU Integrated Positioning Terminal System Architecture
1.3.14 Technology 3: Classification of GNSS+IMU Positioning Module Suppliers 
1.3.15 Technology 3: Summary on GNSS+IMU Positioning Module Products and Suppliers (1)
1.3.16 Technology 3: Summary on GNSS+IMU Positioning Module Products and Suppliers (2)
1.3.17 Technology 3: Summary on GNSS+IMU Positioning Module Products and Suppliers (3)
1.3.18 Technology 3: Summary on GNSS+IMU Positioning Module Products and Suppliers (4)
1.3.19 Technology 3: GNSS+IMU Heads in the Direction of Multi-source Fusion Technology 
1.3.20 Technology 3: Multi-source Fusion Modes 
1.3.21 Technology 3: Summary on Autonomous Driving Fusion Positioning Algorithms and Suppliers 

2 Highlights of High Precision Positioning Technology
2.1 High Precision Positioning Development Trend 1: Coupling Algorithm
2.1.1 Coupling Algorithm Is the Core Asset of Integrated Navigation (P-box)
2.1.2 Classification of Integrated Positioning Coupling Algorithms and Differences between Them
2.1.4 Integrated Positioning Coupling Algorithm 1: Loose Coupling
2.1.5 Integrated Positioning Coupling Algorithm 2: Tight Coupling
2.1.6 Integrated Positioning Coupling Algorithm 3: Deep Coupling
2.1.7 Selection of Coupling Algorithms in Different Autonomous Driving Environments 
2.1.8 Advantages of Deep Coupling Algorithm
2.1.9 Disadvantages of Deep Coupling Algorithm
2.1.10 Challenges in Development of Deep Coupling Algorithm: Chip
2.2 High Precision Positioning Development Trend 2: PPP-RTK Positioning Enhancement Service
2.2.1 PPP-RTK Will Become the Mainstream Option for Intelligent Vehicles 
2.2.2 Superiorities of PPP-RTK over NRTK
2.2.5 Summary on PPP-RTK Systems and Suppliers 
2.3 High Precision Positioning Development Trend 3: Low Orbit Satellite
2.3.1 Low Orbit Satellite Layout
2.3.2 Advantages of Low Orbit Satellite: Satellite Signal Coverage Enhancement
2.3.3 Advantages of Low Orbit Satellite: High Precision Positioning and Satellite Communication
2.3.4 Full-link Vehicle Satellite Communication Solution Enters Commercialization Phase: Passenger Car
2.3.5 Full-link Vehicle Satellite Communication Solution Enters Commercialization Phase: Commercial Vehicle
2.4 High Precision Positioning Development Trend 4: Dual-frequency RTK
2.4.1 Dual-frequency RTK Becomes Mainstream
2.4.2 Function of Dual-frequency RTK 
2.4.3 Advantages of Dual-frequency RTK: Effectively Improve Positioning Accuracy
2.4.4 Dual-frequency GNSS Product Case 
2.5 High Precision Positioning Development Trend 5: IMU Calibration
2.5.1 Value of IMU in Realizing Urban NOA
2.5.2 Important Parameters in IMU Selection Process
2.5.3 IMU Calibration

3 OEMs’ Installation of High Precision Positioning 
3.1 High Precision Positioning Vehicle Integration Form 1: P-BOX
3.1.1 Cost Structure of P-box 
3.1.2 P-box Will Become the Main Installation Form of High Precision Positioning in Vehicles 
3.1.3 P-box Architecture
3.1.4 High Precision Positioning Box Can Be Connected to HD Maps
3.1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of High Precision Positioning Box Solution
3.1.6 Installation Positions of P-box in Vehicles 
3.1.7 Connection Modes of P-box in Vehicles 
3.1.8 P-box Starts Mass Adoption in Vehicles 
3.1.9 Suppliers Race to Launch P-box
3.1.10 P-box Product Cases
3.1.11 GNSS+IMU Integrated Products: Aceinna SMD Solution
3.2 High Precision Positioning Vehicle Integration Form 2: Discrete Module
3.2.1 GNSS and IMU Modules Are Deployed Separately at Different Locations in the Vehicle
3.2.2 Independent Layout Mode of GNSS: Integrated into T-box
3.2.3 Independent Layout Mode of GNSS: Integrated into Smart Antenna
3.2.4 Independent Layout Mode of GNSS: Integrated into Communication Module
3.2.5 Layout Mode of IMU
3.2.6 Layout Mode of IMU: Integrated into T-box
3.3 High Precision Positioning Vehicle Integration Form 3: SMD Module Integrated into Domain Controller 
3.3.1 Characteristics of Integrating High Precision Positioning Hardware into Domain Controller
3.3.2 Integrating High Precision Positioning Hardware into Domain Controller Can Effectively Reduce Costs 
3.3.3 High Precision Positioning Module Integrated into Domain Controller Requires SMD Design 
3.3.4 Advantages of High Precision Positioning SMD
3.3.5 Changes in Positioning System Architecture after Development of SMD
3.3.6 Challenges in Integrating SMD Module into Domain Controller
3.3.9 High Precision Positioning SMD Layout of Some Suppliers 
3.3.10 Some Suppliers’ Layout of SMD Integrated into Domain Controller 
3.3.11 Cases of SMD Integrated into Domain Controller  
3.4 High Precision Positioning Layout of OEMs 
3.4.1 Main High Precision Positioning Technology Solutions for Autonomous Passenger Cars 
3.4.2 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: SERES 
3.4.3 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Xpeng
3.4.4 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Li Auto
3.4.5 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: NIO
3.4.6 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: BAIC ARCFOX 
3.4.7 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Human Horizons
3.4.8 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Tesla 
3.4.9 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: GAC
3.4.10 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Great Wall
3.4.11 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: FAW Hongqi
3.4.12 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars s: Changan
3.4.13 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: GM
3.4.14 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Leapmotor
3.4.15 OEM High Precision Positioning Technology Solution for Autonomous Passenger Cars: Baidu
3.5 OEMs’ Installation of High Precision Positioning
3.5.1 China’s Passenger Car High Precision Positioning Market Size, 2021-2027E (1)
3.5.2 China’s Passenger Car High Precision Positioning Market Size, 2021-2027E (2) 
3.5.3 Top 10 Production Passenger Car Models with High Precision Positioning by Sales in China, 2022-2023
3.5.4 Price Range of Production Passenger Car Models with High Precision Positioning in China, 2022-2023

4 Main Application Scenarios of High Precision Positioning
4.1 High Precision Positioning Indicators Required by Autonomous Driving
4.1.1 High Precision Positioning Architecture of Mainstream OEMs
4.1.2 Autonomous Driving’s Requirements for High Precision Positioning
4.1.3 Satellite Positioning Indicators Required by Autonomous Driving
4.2 Application Scenario (1): NOA
4.2.1 Requirements of Different NOA for High Precision Positioning 
4.2.2 Urban NOA’s Requirements for High Precision Positioning
4.2.3 Urban NOA Mainly Relies on Multi-source Fusion Positioning
4.2.4 The Rapider Implementation of Urban NOA Drives up High Precision Positioning Installation in Vehicles 
4.2.5 How Do Tier1s Deal with the Urban NOA Trend?
4.3 Application Scenario (2): Low Speed Parking of Passenger Car
4.3.1 High Precision Positioning Technology Used in Low Speed Parking
4.3.2 Low Speed Parking Technology’s Requirements for High Precision Positioning: Vertical Positioning
4.3.3 Low Speed Parking Technology’s Requirements for High Precision Positioning: Online Mapping
4.3.4 Integration of Positioning Module into Domain Controller in the Trend for Driving-parking Integration  
4.3.5 High Precision Positioning Technology Types in Low Speed Parking Functions of Main Passenger Cars
4.4 Application Scenario (3): Low Speed Autonomous Delivery
4.4.1 High Precision Positioning Solution 1 for Low Speed Autonomous Driving: Laser SLAM 
4.4.2 High Precision Positioning Solution 2 for Low Speed Autonomous Driving: Smart Antenna
4.4.3 High Precision Positioning Solution 3 for Low Speed Autonomous Driving: Positioning Box
4.4.4 Application of Some Positioning Technology Solutions in Low Speed Autonomous Driving
4.4.5 High Precision Positioning Case 1 in Low Speed Autonomous Driving
4.4.6 China’s Autonomous Delivery High Precision Positioning Market Size, 2022-2027E
4.5 Application Scenario (4): Autonomous Truck 
4.5.1 High Precision Positioning Technology Solutions of Major Autonomous Truck Suppliers
4.5.2 Application Case of High Precision Positioning in Autonomous Commercial Vehicle 
4.5.3 China’s Autonomous Truck High Precision Positioning Market Size, 2022-2027E

5 High Precision Positioning Basic Service Providers
5.1 Geespace
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Competitive Edges in Satellite Application 
5.1.3 Use Aerospace Technology to Support Hangzhou Asian Games: Asian Games Chinese Satellite 
5.1.4 Use Aerospace Technology to Support Hangzhou Asian Games: High Precision Positioning Service Solution
5.1.5 Large-scale Implementation of Vehicle Satellite Application Products 
5.2 Sixents Technology 
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Product Line
5.2.3 Product 1: Centimeter-level Positioning Service
5.2.4 Product 2: Sub-meter level Positioning Service
5.2.5 Product 3: High Precision Positioning Engine
5.2.6 Product 4: A-GNSS Assisted Positioning
5.2.7 Product 5: PPK Products
5.2.8 Product 6: Orion PPP-RTK 
5.2.9 Product 6: Test Results of Orion
5.2.10 Product 7: Functional Safety Software
5.2.11 Competitive Edge: “Network-Cloud-Terminal” Integrated Solution
5.2.12 High Precision Positioning Solution 1: Autonomous Driving
5.2.13 High Precision Positioning Solution 2: V2X
5.2.14 High Precision Positioning Solution 3: Vehicle Monitoring
5.2.15 Main Partners of High Precision Positioning
5.3 Trimble Navigation
5.3.1 Development History
5.3.2 Main Product 
5.4 Qianxun SI
5.4.1 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Layout
5.4.2 Connect the Entire Industry Chain of Space-time Intelligent Services
5.4.3 Main Technologies: FindAUTO Product Solution
5.4.4 Main Technologies: Satellite-Ground Integrated SSR Service Based on PPP-RTK 
5.4.5 Main Technologies: GNSS/INS Tight Coupling Technology
5.4.6 High Precision Positioning Solution
5.4.7 Achievements in High Precision Positioning Mass Production 
5.5 China Mobile
5.5.1 High Precision Positioning Products: OnePoint
5.5.2 Integrated Positioning Architecture
5.5.3 High Precision Positioning Products: Cooperative Terminal
5.5.4 Cooperate with FAW to Promote Localization of High Precision Positioning Terminals
5.6 TruePoint Technology
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Location Digital Base
5.6.3 Main Technology 
5.7 Starcart Technology
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 High Precision Positioning Product: Vehicle Locator
5.7.3 High Precision Positioning Solution
5.7.4 High Precision Positioning Algorithm
5.7.5 High Precision Positioning Service
5.8.1 PPP-RTK Service
5.8.2 Features of PPP-RTK Service 
5.8.3 Multi-source Fusion Positioning Engine
5.8.4 HD Map Engine and Vehicle Mapping Engine
5.8.5 Flywheel Closed-loop Solution

Chapter 6 High Precision Positioning Module Suppliers
6.1 Novatel
6.1.1 Main Products
6.1.2 Use STMicroelectronics Chips
6.1.3 Autonomous Driving Positioning Product 
6.2 U-blox
6.2.1 Business Lines and Product Technology Route
6.2.2 Positioning Solutions
6.2.3 Main Positioning Product 
6.2.4 Product Application: Vehicle 
6.3 Aceinna
6.3.1 Development History
6.3.2 High Precision Positioning Product Line
6.3.3 Improving Performance of IMU Products 
6.3.4 SMD Products: SMD IMU
6.3.5 SMD Products: SMD INS
6.3.6 Integrated Navigation and Positioning Products
6.3.7 Introduce Integrity Monitoring into P-BOX
6.4 STMicroelectronics
6.4.1 High Precision Positioning Product 1: GNSS Chip
6.4.2 High Precision Positioning Product 2: Module
6.4.3 High Precision Positioning Product 3: Inertial Sensor
6.4.4 High Precision Positioning Product 4: P-box
6.4.5 High Precision Positioning Product 4: Advantages of P-box Solution
6.4.6 High Precision Positioning Product 4: P-box Functional Safety
6.5 Bosch
6.5.1 IMU Products
6.5.2 IMU Application: Highway Emergency Stop
6.6 Asensing
6.6.1 Profile
6.6.2 Main Business
6.6.3 Positioning Perception Solution 2.0
6.6.4 High Precision Positioning Algorithm
6.6.5 Main High Precision Positioning Products
6.6.6 Vehicle Integrated Navigation and Positioning Products
6.6.7 Map Positioning Box
6.6.8 P-box Application
6.7.1 Profile
6.7.2 Product Lines
6.7.3 High Precision Positioning Product 1
6.7.4 High Precision Positioning Product 2
6.7.5 High Precision Positioning Product 3: Satellite-IMU Integrated Navigation System
6.7.6 High Precision Positioning Product 4: P-box
6.7.7 Application of High Precision Positioning Products 
6.8 CHC Navigation 
6.8.1 Profile
6.8.2 High Precision Positioning Business
6.8.3 Competitive Edges in Autonomous Driving Industry
6.8.4 Autonomous Driving Positioning Product 1: GNSS Receiver
6.8.5 Autonomous Driving Positioning Product 2: P Series High Precision Positioning System
6.8.8 Autonomous Driving Positioning Product 3: CGI Series Satellite-IMU Integrated Navigation 
6.8.9 High Precision Positioning Product Application 1: Passenger Car
6.8.10 High Precision Positioning Product Application 2: Autonomous Agricultural Machinery
6.9 Bynav 
6.9.1 Profile
6.9.2 Positioning Chip
6.9.3 Vehicle Integrated Navigation Products
6.9.4 Integrated Navigation Product 1: High Precision Positioning Directional Board C1
6.9.5 Integrated Navigation Product 2: High Precision Integrated Navigation Board A1
6.9.6 Integrated Navigation Product 3: High Precision Integrated Navigation Module M1
6.9.7 Integrated Navigation Product 4: High Precision Integrated Navigation Module M2
6.9.8 Integrated Navigation Product 5: High Precision Integrated Navigation System X1
6.9.9 Integrated Navigation Product 6: High Precision Integrated Navigation System X2
6.9.10 High Precision Positioning Product Installation Mode: X1
6.9.11 Application of High Precision Positioning Technology 
6.10 Haige Communications
6.10.1 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Layout 
6.10.2 Launch of P-BOX
6.11 Hi-Target 
6.11.1 Profile
6.11.2 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Technology Layout
6.11.3 Vehicle High Precision Positioning Solution
6.11.4 High Precision Positioning Products: Integrated Navigation Positioning Products
6.11.5 Application of High Precision Positioning Technology 
6.12 Allystar 
6.12.1 Profile
6.12.2 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Products
6.12.3 Application of High Precision Positioning 
6.13 ComNav 
6.13.1 Profile
6.13.2 Sales of Main Products
6.13.3 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 1: GNSS Chip
6.13.4 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 2: GNSS Module
6.13.5 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 3: GNSS Universal Navigation Kit
6.13.6 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 4: Integrated Navigation
6.13.7 High Precision Positioning Technology Application 1: Passenger Car
6.13.8 High Precision Positioning Technology Application 2: Commercial Vehicle
6.13.9 High Precision Positioning Technology Application 3: Autonomous Driving of Agricultural Machinery
6.14 BDStar Navigation 
6.14.1 High Precision Positioning Business Layout
6.14.2 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 1: Integrated Navigation NPOS122
6.14.3 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 2: Integrated Navigation MS-6110
6.14.4 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 3: Integrated Navigation NPOS222
6.14.5 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 4: Integrated Navigation NPOS220
6.15 Qianxun SI
6.15.1 High Precision Positioning Hardware: Chip
6.15.2 High Precision Positioning Hardware: Module
6.15.3 Advantages of Positioning Module
6.16 Unicore Communications 
6.16.1 Profile
6.16.2 Global Layout
6.16.3 High Precision Positioning Business
6.16.4 High Precision Positioning Technology Evolution Trend
6.16.5 Main High Precision Positioning Products
6.16.6 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 1: GNSS Chip
6.16.7 Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Product 2: Positioning Module
6.16.8 Application of Autonomous Driving High Precision Positioning Products 
6.17 Quectel 
6.17.1 Main Vehicle Products 
6.17.2 Vehicle Positioning Module
6.18 W-Ibeda High Tech 
6.18.1 Obtained High Precision Positioning Designated Projects from Automakers
6.18.2 Inertial Navigation Products
6.19 Jingwei Hirain
6.19.1 High Precision Positioning Module: LMU
6.19.2 High Precision Positioning Module: LMU Application
6.20 Sinosemic
6.20.1 Profile
6.20.2 High Precision Positioning Hardware Product: VX100
6.20.3 High Precision Positioning Hardware Product: P-box
6.21 Cxrobot Connect
6.21.1 High Precision Positioning Layout
6.21.2 Launch of P-box
6.22 Forsense 
6.22.1 IMU Layout
6.22.2 Vehicle High Precision Integrated Navigation
6.22.3 Vehicle Inertial Sensor
6.23 Others
6.23.1 StarNeto’s Integrated Positioning Products

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