Global Autonomous Driving Policies & Regulations and Automotive Market Access Research Report, 2024
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Intelligent driving regulations and vehicles going overseas: research on regional markets around the world and access strategies.  
"Going out”: discussion about regional markets around the world and access

In 2023, China exported up to 4.14 million passenger cars. Wherein, 640,000 battery electric vehicles (BEV) were exported to Europe, accounting for 41.27% of the total battery electric passenger car exports, and the export value was RMB132.5 billion, or 55.13% of the total; 310,000 BEVs were exported to Southeast Asia, making up 20.09%, and the export value was RMB22.3 billion, or 9.28% of the total. USA has imposed high punitive tariffs on Chinese electric vehicles, and Europe also has such a plan. In spite of many challenges, Chinese passenger cars are still expected to make breakthroughs in major regional markets such as Russia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and South America.       

政策法规 1_副本.png

European automotive market and autonomous driving regulations

According to the data from European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA), there have been 322 automobile assembly, engine and battery manufacturing plants in Europe, 213 of which are located in the European Union (EU) countries. A total of 127 plants produce cars, 71 make buses, 56 manufacture trucks (heavy-duty vehicles), 46 make vans (light commercial vehicles), 71 build engines, and 42 are battery manufacturing bases.  

政策法规 2_副本.png 

In October 2023, the EU launched an anti-subsidy investigation into Chinese electric vehicles. It currently conducts a sample investigation into Chinese companies. As this investigation comes to an end, the investigation report is very likely to affirm that Chinese electric vehicles are subsidized, and 15% to 30% punitive tariffs will be imposed on Chinese electric vehicles exported to the EU. European professional institutions predict the tariff rate may be 19%. Against this background, Chinese OEMs are quickening their pace of deploying production bases in Europe.  

政策法规 3_副本.png

As a joint economy, the EU is highly interconnected in terms of autonomous driving regulations. The autonomous driving regulations in EU members are mainly based on EU regulations, with only tweaks in some details. Therefore, meeting EU autonomous driving regulations is a must for Chinese companies to go overseas. 

The EU has the strictest and newest environmental protection policies and the latest battery traceability policies globally. It is another policy barrier for Chinese OEMs’ technology, and the trade protection implemented by EU;
EU’s autonomous driving regulations are safety-oriented and the strictest in the world; 
Although the UK has left the EU, its autonomous driving regulations overall remain consistent with the EU.  

Due to varying attitudes towards China, European countries also have different requirements for Chinese companies’ autonomous driving overseas:

20120114.gifGermany: German OEMs Volkswagen and Mercedes Benz have an open attitude towards Chinese companies in intelligent driving, and remain the closest contact with them. The overseas expansion of Chinese companies in intelligent driving can further increase the shares of Volkswagen and Mercedes Benz in the EU market; Momenta, Deeproute. ai, and NIO among others have established intelligent driving development centers in Germany. The country will become a bridgehead for China's autonomous driving technology to go global;    
20120114.gifHungary: it is politically friendly to China, located at the center of the EU, and positioned as a production and R&D center, with production bases of multiple OEMs. Hungary vigorously participates in R&D and testing of autonomous driving technology, and is expected to become the country of  the greatest strategic importance for China in the EU market in the future, becoming a "springboard" for Chinese companies to enter EU.  
20120114.gifFrance: Autonomous driving testing started early.  In 2014, it invested 40 million euros to carry out a number of autonomous vehicle test projects. In 2019, it took the lead in passing laws & regulations and related framework that allow autonomous driving vehicles on the road. However, in recent years, the development of autonomous driving of new energy vehicles lags behind that of Germany;
20120114.gifUK: it built an automated vehicle center in 2015 and then proposed commercialization of autonomous vehicles in the UK by 2025. The new Automated Vehicles Act released in 2023 aims to clarify that the responsibility for autonomous vehicle accidents should be taken by OEMs. This Act is only applicable to L3+ automated vehicles.   

Southeast Asia automotive market and autonomous driving regulations

ASEAN countries and China signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), the world's largest free trade agreement which involves trade facilitation and technological cooperation on electric vehicles. This agreement will help facilitate interconnection and mutual benefit between China and ASEAN countries in the field of electric vehicles. 

According to the road driving status of vehicles, in the ASEAN region, exactly half of countries are left-hand drive vehicle markets (Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar), and the other half are right-hand drive vehicle markets (Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand and Singapore). According to automobile sales data released by automobile associations of Southeast Asian countries, it can be seen that automobile sales in Southeast Asian countries sustained high growth in 2023. Wherein, Indonesia saw the highest sales, up to 1 million units, and Malaysia followed. 

政策法规 4_副本.png

Thailand: With its geographical advantage, it has become an ideal destination for Chinese auto brands to go overseas. Located in the center of Southeast Asia, Thailand not only connects Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam, but also radiates to China and India, making it a key gate for investors to enter the ASEAN market. As a major agricultural country, Thailand actively build agricultural cooperation with countries such as China and Singapore to introduce advanced technologies and agricultural machineries such as unmanned intelligent rice transplanters and plant protection drones, and jointly carry out R&D projects to support local agricultural development.  

In the Southeast Asian market, Thailand leads in vehicle manufacturing. It has introduced a range of loose policies in electric vehicle production and investment. It is one of the main destinations for Chinese OEMs to build factories overseas. OEMs like GAC, Chery, SAIC, Great Wall, BYD and Neta Auto, and even battery giant CATL, have announced the building of factories in Southeast Asia, with a total investment of over RMB10 billion.   
Singapore: it adopts the Regulatory Sandbox system to supervise the autonomous vehicle industry. On the one hand, it can test the safety capabilities of vehicles; on the other hand, it also grants the Land Transport Authority (LTA) of Singapore extensive discretion, gathering legislation experience for the LTA to formulate rules for licensing conditions, operations or test routes.    

Singapore has made multiple deployments in autonomous driving, having tested projects in Singapore Changi Airport, logistics parks, and university communities. There is currently no automobile manufacturing base in Singapore, but only an autonomous driving R&D and test center. This is related to Singapore's development layout. Enterprise Singapore encourages and supports Singaporean enterprises to work on innovation-driven development, and promotes their integration and cooperation with global high-quality resources, so as to gain greater international competitive edges.    

Singapore positions itself as a regional autonomous driving R&D center. The sales of new energy vehicles will not surge due to Singapore's private car policy. Yet among Southeast Asian countries, Singapore has great potential in developing autonomous driving. NIO has been officially listed on the main board of Singapore Exchange, with stock code being “NIO", and has also established an AI and autonomous driving R&D center in Singapore. Li Auto will set up an office in Singapore to recruit R&D teams related to AI inference chips and SiC power chips.

“Bringing in”: China’s regulatory frameworks for autonomous driving, data and AI

China’s regulatory framework for autonomous driving road test

The National Comprehensive Three-dimensional Transportation Network Planning Outline clarifies that by 2035, China's autonomous driving technology will lead in the world. The Outline for Building China's Strength in Transportation suggests taking "strengthening R&D of autonomous driving technology and building an independent, controllable and complete industry chain" as an important part of building a country with strength in transportation. 

China’s regulations on application of AI in vehicles 

China is striking agreements on AI governance with countries around the world, including Russia and France, aiming to establish a global rule system and ecosystem. In terms of top-level design, China has issued policy documents, for example, Global AI Governance Initiative, Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan, Measures for Scientific and Technological Ethics Review (Trial), and Opinions on Strengthening Ethical Governance of Science and Technology.   

Application of AI in vehicles needs to meet national regulatory requirements such as Interim Measures for the Administration of Generative Artificial Intelligence Services and Provisions on the Administration of Deep Synthesis of Internet-based Information Services. OEMs’ foundation models need to enter the Chinese Deep Synthesis Service Algorithm Filing List, specifically involving algorithm filing, security assessment, and filing of foundation models for use. Domestic deep synthesis technology services (text, pictures, audio, video, virtual reality, etc.) require algorithm filing, which often takes 2-4 months.

In May 2024, the EU Artificial Intelligence Act (AI Act) took effect. EU pays particular attention to AI foundation models and data protection. EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) poses very strict requirements for the use and processing of personal data.

China's regulations on data security and data asset circulation

China has speeded up the construction of its data asset system and established the National Data Administration. In the field of intelligent driving, regarding issues such as Tesla FSD entering into China and data export, the Data Department of Lin-gang Special Area Management Committee, as the direct supervisor, will further formulate regulations on local data collection, local training, and data export of Tesla and other foreign OEMs. In February 2024, "Measures for the Classified and Graded Management of Cross-border Data Flow in the Lin-gang Special Area" was released, defining three levels of cross-border data, i.e., core data, important data and general data and making it clear that core data is prohibited from crossing borders.

According to the policies Measures for the Security Assessment of Outbound Data Transfer and Provisions on Promoting and Regulating Cross-border Data Flow, for Tesla FSD's entry into China, Tesla is likely to need to build local data cloud training and storage centers to meet data compliance requirements.  

In addition, the Notice on Carrying out Pilot Work on Expanding the Opening-up of Value-added Telecommunications Services" issued by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has loosened the restrictions on the proportion of foreign investment in data centers, which will help foreign-funded OEMs build local training centers in China.

In general, China has formulated a range of policies and regulations on L3/L4 autonomous driving on-road use, cybersecurity, data security, vehicle-road-cloud integration, smart roads, and mapping, providing compliance guidance for OEMs.

(1) Regulations on L3/L4 autonomous driving on-road use in China:
20120114.gifHighway-based L2/L2+ technology has been marketed, and highway-based L3 technology has entered the test stage; 
20120114.gifAt present, many provinces and municipalities have issued L3/L4 autonomous driving road test regulations, involving specific requirements for vehicle insurance, safety officers, and application conditions for demonstration use and operation. The Ministry of Transport has released the second batch of pilot applications of autonomous driving, covering highway passenger and freight transportation, urban mobility and logistics, intra-park transportation and operation in specific scenarios;
20120114.gifIn terms of low-speed autonomous driving, some cities have issued detailed regulations, targeting low-speed autonomous vehicles with speeds not exceeding 15km/h. 

 (2) China’s regulations on autonomous driving cybersecurity and data security:
20120114.gifCybersecurity: clarify that pilot cities should have provincial or municipal intelligent connected vehicle safety monitoring capabilities, vehicle cybersecurity and data security management capabilities, etc.;
20120114.gifData security: ensure that vehicle information and personal information of owners, as well as vehicle data, are protected from unauthorized access, tampering or leakage. Follow the principles: 1) In-vehicle processing, not provided outside the vehicle unless absolutely necessary; 2) No collection by default; 3) Accuracy range application; 4) Desensitization.  

 (3) China's regulations on autonomous driving roads, maps, and traffic
20120114.gifVehicle-road-cloud integration: the purpose is to build a unified V2X technology standard and test evaluation system. In 2024, C-NCAP introduced C-V2X technology into the active safety evaluation for the first time;
20120114.gifSmart roads for autonomous driving: adopt an "end-edge-cloud" integrated technical architecture and establish a technical system of road engineering facilities supporting autonomous driving.
20120114.gifMapping for autonomous driving: build a relatively perfect autonomous driving map system according to regulatory requirements for different types of autonomous driving maps, intelligent vehicle base maps, and geographical mapping information collection and management.

1 Global Autonomous Driving Guidance and On-road Use Regulations

1.0 Summary of Global Autonomous Driving Guidance and On-road Use Regulations 
1.1 Basic Autonomous Driving Regulations
1.1.1 Current Regulations on Autonomous Driving Levels 
1.1.2 Functions of Autonomous Driving Levels and Popularization Timeline
1.1.3 SAE Levels of Driving Automation  
1.1.4 China’s Levels of Driving Automation 
1.1.5 Summary of Autonomous Driving Regulations - Definitions, Levels, and Coding Regulations 

1.2 Global Autonomous Driving Organizations and Regulations
1.2.1 Global Autonomous Vehicle Standardizing Organizations
1.2.2 UNECE WP.29 - United Nations World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations
1.2.3 UNECE WP.29 - Autonomous Driving Related Work
1.2.4 UNECE WP.29 - List of Automotive Regulations
1.2.5 ISO - International Organization for Standardization
1.2.6 ISO - TC22 ADAG working group
1.2.7 ISO - TC22/SC32/WG8 Working Groups
1.2.8 ISO - Autonomous Driving Related Regulations List
1.2.9 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
1.2.10 IEC - Organizational Structure
1.2.11 IEC - Autonomous Driving Related Standards
1.2.12 International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
1.2.13 WSC - World Standards Cooperation
1.2.14 SAE - Society of Automotive Engineers
1.2.15 SAE - Autonomous Driving Related

1.3 Global L3/L4 Autonomous Driving On-road Use Regulations
1.3.1 Planning for Legal On-road Use 
1.3.2 Country-specific Guidance Documents
1.3.3 Timeline for L3 On-road Use Planning
1.3.4 L3 On-Road Use Projects  
1.3.5 Major International Regulations 
1.3.6 Framework Document for Autonomous Vehicles ≥ Safety and Related Principles for L3 Autonomous Vehicles
1.3.7 Framework Document for Autonomous Vehicles: Working Principles
1.3.8 UN R157 ALKS
1.3.9 UN R157: Major Test Programs
1.3.10 UN R157: Technical Requirements for System Safety and Fail-Safe Response
1.3.11 UN R157: Technical Requirements for Human Machine Interface and Operator Information
1.3.12 UN R157: Technical Requirements for Data Storage, Cybersecurity, and OTA
1.3.13 UN R155 Cyber Security Regulations
1.3.14 ISO 21434 Automotive Cybersecurity
1.3.15 UN R155 vs ISO 21434

1.4 Global Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity Regulations
1.4.1 Global Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity Regulations
1.4.2 ISO/SAE 21434 Cybersecurity Standard for Road Vehicles
1.4.3 ISO/SAE 21434: Cybersecurity Framework
1.4.4 ISO/SAE 21434: Cybersecurity Threats
1.4.5 ISO/SAE 21434: Cybersecurity Process Management
1.4.6 ISO/TR 4804
1.4.7 ISO/TR 4804: 12 Top-level Safety Principles
1.4.8 ISO/TR 4804: Capabilities of Autonomous Driving
1.4.9 ISO/TR 4804: Minimum Risk Conditions and Minimum Risk Strategies
1.4.10 ISO/TR 4804: Generic Logical Architecture
1.4.11 UN/WP.29 R155
1.4.12 UN/WP.29 R155: Certificate of Compliance
1.4.13 UN/WP.29 R155: Cyber Security Management System
1.4.14 UN/WP.29 R155: Vehicle Type
1.4.15 UN/WP.29 R155: Review Information
1.4.16 UN/WP.29 R156
1.4.17 UN/WP.29 R156: Schematic Diagram of Certification Process
1.4.18 UN/WP.29 R156: Model Software Upgrade Requirements
1.4.19 UN/WP.29 R156: SUMS Requirements
1.4.20 UN/WP.29 R156: Access to the Draft Revised EU Framework Regulations for Vehicles
1.4.21 UN/WP.29 R156: Review information

1.5 Global Autonomous Driving Technology Overseas Regulations
1.5.1 Global Autonomous Driving Technology Certification Regulations
1.5.2 Automatically Commanded Steering Function (ACSF): UN R79
1.5.3 Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS): UN R152
1.5.4 Blind Spot Information System (BSIS): UN R151
1.5.5 Reversing Monitoring System: UN R158
1.5.6 Automated Lane Keeping System (ALKS): UN R157
1.5.7 Moving Off Information System (MOIS): UN R159

1.6 Automotive Carbon Footprint Management Regulations
1.6.1 Global Automotive Carbon Footprint/Battery Recycling Regulations
1.6.2 Global Automotive Carbon Footprint Management Certification
1.6.3 New EU Batteries Regulation
1.6.4 New EU Batteries Regulation - Carbon Footprint/Battery Recycling
1.6.5 New EU Batteries Regulation - Carbon Footprint Accounting Boundary
1.6.6 Battery Recycling - Interim Measures for the Administration of Power Battery Recycling for New Energy Vehicles
1.6.7 Harmonized Management and International Mutual Recognition of Carbon Footprint of Chinese Automotive Products
1.6.8 Carbon Footprint Level of Chinese Automotive Products
1.6.9 Full Electrification of Chinese Automobiles is Leading the Industry's Green Change

1.7 Global Artificial Intelligence Regulatory Laws
1.7.1 Major Global National Artificial Intelligence Acts
1.7.2 TC260-003 - Basic Security Requirements for Generative Artificial Intelligence Service

2 China's Autonomous Driving Guidance on Road Regulations

2.0 China's Autonomous Driving Guidance on Road Regulations - Summary
2.1 China's Autonomous Vehicle Development Guidance Regulations
2.1.1 China Autonomous Driving - General Framework Regulations
2.1.2 China Autonomous Driving-Technology/Production Regulations
2.1.3 China Autonomous Driving - IoV Industry Standard Framework

2.2 China's L3/L4/L5 Autonomous Driving Road Regulations
2.2.1 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Application and Operation Regulations
2.2.2 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations - National Level
2.2.3 China's Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations- Notice on the Pilot Work of Intelligent Connected Vehicle Admission and Road Passage
2.2.4 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations - Guidelines for Transportation Safety Services of Autonomous Vehicles (for Trial Implementation)
2.2.5 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations - Administrative Specifications for Road Testing and Demonstration Application of Intelligent Connected Vehicles
2.2.6 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations-Local Regulations
2.2.7 China's L3-L5 Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations - Distillation of Main Requirements in Local Regulations
2.2.8 China's L3-L5 Automatic Driving Road Test Regulations-Local Standards
2.2.9 China's Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations-Shenzhen Autonomous Driving Commercialization Pilot Regulations

2.3 China's Autonomous Driving-Pilot Application
2.3.1 China's Autonomous Driving - Pilot Application Regulations
2.3.2 China's Autonomous Driving - Pilot Application Areas

2.4 China's Low-speed Autonomous Driving Regulations
2.4.1 China's Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations-Low-Speed Autonomous Driving
2.4.2 China's Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations-Low-Speed Autonomous Driving Standards
2.4.3 China's Autonomous Driving Road Test Regulations-Low-Speed Autonomous Driving: Supply Chain

2.5 China's Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity Regulations
2.5.1 Importance of Cybersecurity for Autonomous Vehicles
2.5.2 Overview of Global Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity Regulations
2.5.3 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity - Regulation System
2.5.4 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity – Standard Development
2.5.5 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity – Standard System
2.5.6 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity - National IoV Industry Standard System
2.5.7 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity - Standard System (2023-2030)
2.5.8 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity - Standard System Framework 
2.5.9 China’s Autonomous Driving Cybersecurity - Standard Project Breakdown
2.5.10 GB/T 40856-2021
2.5.11 GB/T 40855-2021
2.5.12 GB/T 40857-2021
2.5.13 GB/T 40861-2021
2.5.14 GB/T 41578-2022 Cybersecurity of Electric Vehicle Charging System
2.5.15 CATARC: Vehicle Cybersecurity Lab

2.6 China's Autonomous Driving Data Safety Regulations
2.6.1 Definition and Classification of Automotive Data in China
2.6.2 China's Main Types of Automotive Data
2.6.3 China's Automotive Data Safety Regulation Framework
2.6.4 Automotive Data Security Regulations
2.6.5 Responsibilities and Obligations of Automotive Data Processors
2.6.6 Mandatory National Standards for Information Security
2.6.7 National and Group Standards for Automotive Data Security
2.6.8 Automotive Collected Data Processing Safety Regulations
2.6.9 Legal Requirements for Automotive Information Transmission
2.6.10 Automotive Information Transmission: Industry Practice Approach
2.6.11 Automotive Information Storage Safety Regulations
2.6.12 Data Sharing Security Requirements
2.6.13 Voluntary Testing of 4 Safety Requirements for Automotive Data Processing

2.7 China's Autonomous Driving Regulations on Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration
2.7.1 Summary of Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration Regulations
2.7.2 Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration
2.7.9 Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration: Vehicle-Road-Cloud Integration in Beijing Demonstration Zone

2.8 China's Intelligent Transportation Regulations
2.8.1 Framework
2.8.2 Standard System for Intelligent Transportation Systems (2024)
2.8.3 Autonomous Driving Technology Standards
2.8.4 Autonomous Driving Product Standards

2.9 Smart Road Regulations
2.9.1 Autonomous Driving Smart Road Levels
2.9.2 China's Autonomous Driving Roadside-Smart Road Regulations
2.9.3 Autonomous Driving Technical Guidelines
2.9.4 Autonomous Driving Network Requirements
2.9.5 RSU (Roadside Unit)
2.9.6 RSU Technical Standards
2.9.7 RSU Technical Requirements and Test Regulations
2.9.8 LIDAR Technical Requirements and Testing Regulations

2.10 China's Autonomous Driving Mapping Regulations
2.10.1 China's Autonomous Driving Mapping Regulation System
2.10.2 Information Security Requirements and Regulations
2.10.3 Application and Planning
2.10.4 China's Mapping and Geographic Information Field - Standard System Structure
2.10.5 China's Intelligent Vehicle Basic Map Standard System Table

2.11 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Requirements Regulations
2.11.1 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Requirements Regulations
2.11.2 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Requirements Regulations
2.11.3 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Requirements Regulations
2.11.4 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Certification - C-NCAP 2024
2.11.5 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Certification - C-NCAP 2024: Pilot Projects
2.11.6 China’s Autonomous Driving Function Technical Certification - C-NCAP 2024: C-V2X Technology

2.12 China's Mandatory National Standards for Automobiles
2.12.1 China's National Automotive Standards System in 2024
2.12.2 Intelligent Connected Passenger Vehicles in China - Staged Development Goals and Trends
2.12.3 China's Mandatory National Standards for Passenger Cars-2024 Edition
2.12.4 China's National Standard for New Energy Vehicles-2024 Edition
2.12.5 China's National Standard for Intelligent Connected Vehicles-2024 Edition
2.12.6 China's Intelligent Connected Trucks - Staged Development Goals and Trends
2.12.7 China's Mandatory National Standard for Commercial Vehicles-2024 Edition
2.12.8 China's Intelligent Connected Buses - Staged Development Goals and Trends

3 Analysis of China's Autonomous Driving Overseas

3.0 Analysis of China's Autonomous Driving Overseas-Summary
3.1 Forecast of Autonomous Driving Penetration Rate of Passenger Cars in China
3.1.1 Forecast of Passenger Car Sales and Autonomous Driving Penetration Rate in China
3.1.2 Forecast of Autonomous Driving Penetration Rate of Passenger Cars in China (Specifications)

3.2 China's New Energy Vehicle Export Data
3.2.1 China's New Energy Vehicle Export Volume
3.2.2 China's New Energy Passenger Car Exports Far Exceed Other Models
3.2.3 China's PHEV Export Trend in 2023-2024
3.2.4 Regional Distribution of China's New Energy Vehicle Exports
3.2.5 Country Distribution of China's New Energy Vehicle Exports
3.2.6 Country and Region Distribution, Proportion and Unit Price of Battery Electric Passenger Car Exports

3.3 Cases of China's Intelligent Driving Export
3.3.1 iMotion-Mass Production Going Overseas
3.3.2 iMotion-Intelligent Driving Solution
3.3.3 iMotion-European Compliance Review (Specifications)

3.4 Autonomous Driving Certification Enterprises and Cases
3.4.1 Layout Cases
3.4.2 Information Security Technology Certification Cases
3.4.3 Vehicle-Road Collaboration Certification Case
3.4.4 Battery Passport Cases
3.4.5 Certified Enterprises' Overseas Cooperation Cases

3.5 Regulations on the Export of Used Cars from China
3.5.1 Regulations on the Export of Used Vehicles from China - Announcement on Matters Relating to the Export of Used Vehicles
3.5.2 Application Procedures for Exporting Used Cars from China

4 Analysis of European Autonomous Driving Regulations and Automotive Market Access

4.0 Europe Autonomous Driving Market Analysis - Summary
4.1 Europe-Automobiles/New Energy Vehicles/Pile Ratio
4.1.1 Europe - Total Automobile Sales Volume
4.1.2 Europe-New Car Registrations by Country
4.1.3 Europe-New Car Registrations by Group/Brand
4.1.4 Europe-EU Automobile Imports
4.1.5 Europe-EU Automobile Exports
4.1.6 Europe-New Energy Vehicle Registrations
4.1.7 Europe-New Energy Vehicle Registrations by Country
4.1.8 EU - Vehicle-to-pile Ratio
4.1.9 EU - Charging Infrastructure
4.1.10 EU-Charging infrastructure (AC/DC Classification)
4.1.11 EU-Charging Infrastructure (Country Classification)
4.1.12 EU-Share of Battery Electric Vehicles & Availability of Charging Points

4.2 Europe-Automotive Production Base Analysis
4.2.1 Europe - Automotive Production by Country
4.2.2 Europe-Automotive Production Base Layout
4.2.3 Europe-Chinese Enterprises' Overseas Investment Projects

4.3 Europe-Main Automotive Regulations
4.3.1 Europe-Main Automotive Regulations Summary
4.3.2 Europe-Emission Regulation Evolution
4.3.3 Europe-Emission Regulations Euro 7
4.3.4 Europe-Vehicle Type Approval Regulations

4.4 Europe-Autonomous Driving Regulations
4.4.1 Europe Autonomous Driving- Management Modes
4.4.2 Europe Autonomous Driving-Policy Agency
4.4.3 Europe Autonomous Driving - CCAM Platform
4.4.4 Europe Autonomous Driving - Safety Test Organization (ENCAP): Assessment Dimensions
4.4.5 Europe Autonomous Driving - Safety Test Organization (ENCAP): Star Rating Criteria
4.4.6 Europe -ENCAP 2026: Additional Requirements
4.4.7 Europe Autonomous Driving - Framework Regulations
4.4.8 Europe Autonomous Driving Regulation - Intelligent Connected Vehicle Routes
4.4.9 Europe Autonomous Driving - Data Security Regulation
4.4.10 Europe Autonomous Driving -Technical Certification Regulation
4.4.11 Europe Autonomous Driving-Technical Mandatory Regulations List
4.4.22 EU OEM Autonomous Driving - List of Pilot Projects
4.4.23 Europe Autonomous Driving - List of Major National Regulations

4.5 Germany
4.5.1 Autonomous Driving Legislative System
4.5.2 Autonomous Driving Legislation
4.5.3 Automated Driving Regulations
4.5.4 Ethical Guidelines for Autonomous Driving
4.5.5 L4 Autonomous Driving Regulations
4.5.6 Special Regulations for Licensing and Operational Regulation of Autonomous Driving

4.6 France
4.6.1 AVEthics Program for Autonomous Vehicles
4.6.2 New Energy Vehicle Promotion Policy
4.6.3 New Energy Vehicle/Charging Station Equipping Plan
4.6.4 Electric Vehicle Subsidies

4.7 Hungary
4.7.1 Hungary and China Maintain Cooperation in the Automotive Sector
4.7.2 Hungary Has Production Bases for Several Brands
4.7.3 Company Registration Process
4.7.4 Autonomous Driving Framework Regulations
4.7.5 Autonomous Driving Data Security
4.7.6 Autonomous Driving Data Acquisition, Processing, and Storage
4.7.7 Autonomous Driving 5G and Communication
4.7.8 Hungary Autonomous Driving Project - ZalaZONE

4.8 UK
4.8.1 Legal Framework for Autonomous Vehicles
4.8.2 Autonomous Driving Planning Route Plan, 2025-2030
4.8.3 Autonomous Vehicle Testing Programs
4.8.4 Autonomous Driving Company Wayve

4.9 Spain
4.9.1 Status Quo of Automobile Development
4.9.2 Autonomous Driving

5 Analysis of Southeast Asian Automotive Market and Access

5.0 Analysis of Southeast Asian Automotive Market and Access -Summary
5.1 Status Quo and Regulations of Automobile Development in Southeast Asia
5.1.1 Free Trade Agreement RCEP
5.1.2 Automotive / New Energy Vehicle Sales
5.1.3 Regional Automotive/Autonomous Driving Market Development
5.1.4 Strong Growth of New Energy Vehicles
5.1.5 Chinese Enterprises' Overseas Investment Projects
5.1.6 New Energy Vehicle Subsidy Regulations
5.1.7 Automotive Certification Regulations

5.2 Thailand
5.2.1 Overview of ASEAN Automobile Production Base Development
5.2.2 Summary of New Energy Vehicle Related Regulations
5.2.3 Electric Vehicle Development Plan
5.2.4 Electric Vehicle Subsidy Incentive Regulations
5.2.5 Automobile Market Production, Sales and Growth Rate
5.2.6 Status Quo of Electric Vehicles
5.2.7 Competitive Landscape of Automobile/Electric Vehicles
5.2.8 Automobile Industry Regulations
5.2.9 List of New Energy Vehicle Factories
5.2.10 Attracting Foreign Investment to Support the Construction of "New Economy"
5.2.11 Major Certification Organizations in the Automotive Industry
5.2.12 Automobile Access Regulations
5.2.13 Emission Certification of Imported Vehicles and Certification Processes
5.2.14 Type Approval Process and Standards
5.2.15 Mandatory Automobile Standards
5.2.16 Autonomous Vehicle Program
5.2.17 EV/Autonomous Driving Overseas Summary

5.3 Singapore
5.3.1 New Car Growth Rate in Singapore is Subject to Quantitative Policy Controls
5.3.2 Japanese and European Branded Vehicles Sell Better in Singapore
5.3.3 Electric Vehicle Market Registrations/Ownership
5.3.4 Ownership of New Energy Vehicles
5.3.5 Automotive Certification Bodies
5.3.6 Automotive Certification System
5.3.7 Automotive Safety Standards and Regulations
5.3.8 Electric Vehicle Promotion and Subsidy Regulations
5.3.9 Charging Infrastructure Regulations
5.3.10 Charging Infrastructure Certification
5.3.11 Autonomous Driving Regulations
5.3.12 TR68 Guidelines
5.3.13 TR68 Guidelines: Basic Behavior - Driving Strategies for Automated Vehicle Behavior
5.3.14 TR68 Guideline: Basic Behavior - Safe Distance & Vehicle Handling
5.3.15 TR68 Guideline: Safety & Cybersecurity Guidelines and Assessment Framework
5.3.16 TR68 Guideline: Vehicle Data Types and Formats
5.3.17 TR68 Guideline: Vehicle Data Types and Formats
5.3.18 Autonomous Vehicle Hardware Configuration
5.3.19 Autonomous Vehicle Operational Area
5.3.20 Autonomous Driving Operations Program Assessment Methods
5.3.21 Autonomous Driving Standards Certification Center
5.3.22 Autonomous Driving Road Test Programs
5.3.23 Summary of Electric Vehicles and Autonomous Driving Overseas

5.4 Indonesia
5.4.1 Automotive Market Overview
5.4.2 Automotive Sales Volume
5.4.3 Competitive Landscape of Automobile Market
5.4.4 Status Quo of New Energy Vehicles
5.4.5 List of Regulations Related to New Energy Vehicles
5.4.6 New Energy Vehicle Subsidy Process
5.4.7 New Energy Enterprise/Import Subsidy Regulations
5.4.8 Automobile Access Authorities
5.4.9 Automobile Technical Standard System
5.4.10 Vehicle Type Certification
5.4.11 Type Approval of Parts and Components
5.4.12 Vehicle Type Approval Summary
5.4.13 Charging Infrastructure Regulations
5.4.14 Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Regulations
5.4.15 Battery Industry Chain Projects

5.5 Malaysia
5.5.1 Automobile Market Overview
5.5.2 Automotive Sales and Growth Rate
5.5.3 Automotive Competitive Landscape
5.5.4 Sales of Chinese Brands
5.5.5 Status Quo of New Energy Vehicles
5.5.6 Automobile Access Management Organization
5.5.7 Automobile Related Access Regulations
5.5.8 Autonomous Driving Regulations
5.5.9 2020 National Automotive Industry Policy 3.0

5.6 Philippines
5.6.1 Automotive Market Overview
5.6.2 New Energy Vehicle Classification Regulations
5.6.3 New Energy Vehicle Classification Regulations
5.6.4 Automobile Sales and Competitive Landscape
5.6.5 Electric Vehicle Sales
5.6.6 Automobile Related Access Regulations
5.6.7 Access Regulations for Automotive Parts and Components
5.6.8 Layout of Chinese Enterprises

5.7 Vietnam
5.7.1 Automobile Market Overview
5.7.2 Automobile Sales and Growth Rate
5.7.3 Sales of New Energy Vehicles
5.7.4 Charging Infrastructure
5.7.5 Automobile Related Access Regulations

6 Analysis of the Central Asia/Middle East/South Asia Alliance Automotive Market and Access

6.0 Analysis of the Central Asia/Middle East/South Asia Alliance Automotive Market and Access -Summary
6.1 Status Quo and Regulations of Automobile Development in Central Asia
6.1.1 Central Asia-China Automobile Export Volume
6.1.2 Central Asia-China Automobile Export Average Price
6.1.3 Five Countries in Central Asia-Automotive Industry Overview
6.1.4 EAEU
6.1.5 EAEU Automotive Technical Standard System
6.1.6 Vehicle Certification Process
6.1.7 Vehicle Certification Documents
6.1.8 Vehicle/ Component Certification Test Programs
6.1.9 Vehicle Emergency Call System Based on GLONASS Satellite Positioning System
6.1.10 ERA-GLONASS Certification Regulations

6.2 Uzbekistan
6.2.1 Characteristics of the Automotive Industry
6.2.2 Competitive Landscape of Automobile
6.2.3 Production Bases of Chinese Enterprises
6.2.4 Autonomous Driving Projects
6.2.5 New Car Import Regulations
6.2.6 Used Car Import Regulations

6.3 Russia
6.3.1 Russia Becomes China's Largest Automobile Export Market
6.3.2 Russian Autonomous Driving-China's Overseas Investment Projects
6.3.3 Autonomous Driving Projects
6.3.4 New Regulations on Automobile Imports in 2024

6.4 Kazakhstan
6.4.1 China's Automobile Going Overseas

6.5 Status Quo and Regulations of Automobile in the Middle East Region
6.5.1 Chinese Brands in the Middle East
6.5.2 Investment in Autonomous Driving
6.5.3 Gulf Region-GCC
6.5.4 Gulf Standardization Organization GSO
6.5.5 GSO Standards Regulations
6.5.6 Saudi Arabia Standards
6.5.7 Automobile Access Regulations

6.6 Turkey
6.6.1 Foreign Trade Agreements
6.6.2 Automotive Industry Development
6.6.3 Automotive Competitive Landscape
6.6.4 Automotive Supply Chain and Local Brands
6.6.5 Investment by Chinese Enterprises
6.6.6 New Energy Vehicle Import Regulations
6.6.7 Charging Station Development

6.7 Iran
6.7.1 Automotive Technical Standard System
6.7.2 Vehicle Type Certification
6.7.3 Vehicle Type Approval Process

6.8 United Arab Emirates
6.8.1 Autonomous Driving Industry Development
6.8.2 Autonomous Driving Projects

6.9 Israel
6.9.1 R&D of Autonomous Vehicles
6.9.2 Automobile Autonomous Driving Enterprises

6.10 Status Quo and Regulations of Automotive Development in South Asia
6.10.1 Chinese Enterprises' Overseas Investment Projects

6.11 India
6.11.1 Automotive Industry Standards AIS
6.11.2 Automotive Regulations: Mandatory Airbag Regulations
6.11.3 Automotive Regulations: Fuel Consumption Mandatory for All Vehicles from 2023
6.11.4 Charging Infrastructure Regulation
6.11.5 BNCAP New Car Assessment Process Regulation
6.11.6 New Electric Vehicle Regulations: High Tariffs in Exchange for Foreign Investment in Plants
6.11.7 Automobile Access Certification Regulations
6.11.8 Automobile Access Certification: Organizations and Processes

6.12 Pakistan
6.12.1 Electric Vehicle Development

7 Analysis of the North/South American Automotive Market and Access

7.0 Analysis of the North/South American Automotive Market and Access -Summary
7.1 Status Quo of Automotive Development and Regulations in North America
7.1.1 NAFTA 2.0
7.1.2 NAFTA-Rules of Origin for Automobiles

7.2 USA
7.2.1 Autonomous Vehicle Related Agencies
7.2.2 Free Trade Agreements with Countries
7.2.3 Autonomous Driving Policy Framework
7.2.4 U.S. Federal Government-Policy in Autonomous Driving
7.2.5 New Energy Vehicle Restriction Bill
7.2.6 Autonomous Driving Policy - AV 1.0 - AV 5.0
7.2.7 Autonomous Driving - List of Technical Mandatory Regulations
7.2.8 Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) Regulations
7.2.9 Battery Industry Regulations
7.2.10 Lithium Battery Production Line and Equipment Compliance
7.2.11 Charging Infrastructure Subsidies

7.3 Mexico
7.3.1 Automotive Industry Overview
7.3.2 Automotive Industry/Electronics Manufacturing Buildups

7.4 Status Quo and Regulations of Automobile Development in South America
7.4.1 Basic Introduction
7.4.2 Automobile Market Access Regulations
7.4.3 Investment Projects of Chinese Enterprises Going Overseas

7.5 Brazil
7.5.1 Automobile Market Overview
7.5.2 New Vehicle Registrations
7.5.3 Automotive Competitive Landscape
7.5.4 Electric Vehicle Sales
7.5.5 Federal Government Taxes on Imports of Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic Power Panels
7.5.6 Optimal Investment Period
7.5.7 OEM Investments
7.5.8 Major Automotive Regulations Agencies
7.5.9 Automotive Certification Regulations
7.5.10 Vehicle Type Approval
7.5.11 Component Type Approval
7.5.12 Access Certification Summary

7.6 Chile
7.6.1 Automotive Industry Overview
7.6.2 Sales of Automobiles/Electric Vehicles
7.6.3 Vehicle Type Approval
7.6.4 Vehicle Type Approval Summary

7.7 Colombia
7.7.1 Automotive Market Characteristics
7.7.2 Automotive Access Certification Regulations

7.8 Peru
7.8.1 Automotive Competitive Landscape
7.8.2 Automotive Access Certification Regulations

7.9 Argentina
7.9.1 Automotive Market Characteristics

8 Analysis of Automotive Market and Access in Other Regions

8.0 Analysis of Automotive Market and Access in Other Regions -Summary
8.1 Japan
8.1.1 Major Institutions and Organizations for Autonomous Driving
8.1.2 Progress of Autonomous Driving Technology
8.1.3 Status Quo and Development of Autonomous Driving Application Areas
8.1.4 Regulations Framework for Autonomous Driving
8.1.5 Major Regulations, Organizations for Autonomous Driving
8.1.6 Automated Driving Regulations - "Road Traffic Laws Play a Major Role in Promoting Automated Driving
8.1.7 Commercialization of Autonomous Driving-Action Reports and Policies to Enable Autonomous Driving 4.0
8.1.8 Commercialization of Autonomous Driving - A Course of Action to Achieve and Popularize Autonomous Driving 5.0
8.1.9 Classification of Driving Environments for Autonomous Vehicles
8.1.10 Classification of Autonomous Vehicle Services
8.1.11 Classification of Autonomous Driver Functions
8.1.12 Autonomous Driving Demonstration Pilot Projects
8.1.13 New Energy Vehicle Subsidy/Access Regulations
8.1.14 Automobile Access Regulations and Rules
8.1.18 Automobile Import Routes

8.2 Korea
8.2.1 Automobile Industry Overview
8.2.2 Sales of New Energy Vehicles
8.2.3 Automotive Certification System
8.2.4 Automotive Certification: Safety Projects
8.2.5 Automotive Certification: Environmental Programs
8.2.6 Automotive Certification/Subsidy Regulations
8.2.7 New Energy Vehicle Promotion Regulations
8.2.8 Autonomous Driving Regulators
8.2.9 L3/L4 Autonomous Driving Promotion Regulations
8.2.10 L3/L4 Autonomous Driving
8.2.11 Infrastructure Deployment

8.3 Australia
8.3.1 Industrial Layout
8.3.2 Automobile Industry Situation
8.3.3 Automotive Competitive Landscape
8.3.4 Automotive Certification System
8.3.5 Vehicle Type Regulations
8.3.6 Automotive Market Regulatory Requirements
8.3.7 Autonomous Driving Organizations
8.3.8 Autonomous Driving Testing
8.3.9 Autonomous Driving Infrastructure

8.4 New Zealand
8.4.1 Automobile Certification Regulations
8.4.2 Vehicle Access Regulations

8.5 Status Quo of Automobile Development and Regulations in Africa
8.5.1 Automobile Ownership
8.5.2 Competitive Landscape of Automobile
8.5.3 Comparison of Major Countries
8.5.4 Automobile Access Regulations

8.6 South Africa
8.6.1 Automotive Market Overview
8.6.2 Automobile Sales
8.6.3 Automotive Technical Standard System
8.6.4 Vehicle Type Approval
8.6.5 Vehicle Type Approval Summary

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