China EV Charging Station and Charging Pile Market Report, 2021
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Charging Infrastructure Research: Three Modes for Self-Building and Operation of OEM’s Charging Piles


Global charging pile ownership surged, while high-power fast charging network leads the growth

As of the end of 2020, there are over 11 million units of EVs on the road worldwide. Although global automotive industry suffered downturn under the impact of the COVID-19, global EV registration grew by 41% in 2000. According to IEA (International Energy Agency) data, global EV sales volume is expected to be 15 million units to 20 million units by 2025.

charging 1_副本.png

Under this background, government of each county fastens planning and construction of charging piles. Based on IEA’s statistics, number of EV charging infrastructures worldwide in 2020 amounted to 9.5 million units, including 2.5 million units public ones. Conservatively forecast, global EV charging infrastructures will increase to around 50 million units, including nearly 10 million units of public one.

charging 2_副本.png

Currently, China’s charging pile ownership ranks first in the world. As of the end of 2020, China’s new energy vehicle ownership reached 4.92 million units, and number of charging piles amounted to 1.68 million units. Among them, number of private and commercial charging piles (including public and special) hit 874,700 units and 806,000 units, respectively, while car-to-pile ratio was 0.34 to 1.

It is estimated that China’s new energy vehicle ownership will amount to 17.82 million units by 2025 and number of charging piles will approximate 9.39 million units. Among them, number of private and commercial charging piles (including public and special) will hit 6.18 million units and 3.21 million units, while car-to-pile ratio will be 0.53 to 1.

charging 3_副本.png

At present, China's highway fast charging network has basically taken shape, ranking first in the world. By 2020, a total of 2,251 charging stations and 9,065 charging piles have been built on 42 highways, with a service mileage of 54,000 kilometers, accounting for 35% of the total mileage of highways nationwide. According to the summary of bidding information for highway charging equipment of the State Grid over the years, highway charging piles are mainly 80 KW to 160 KW, and 240/480 KW super-power super-charging piles have been laid.

charging 4_副本.png

Medium and high-end intelligent EV brands vigorously layout charging network construction

Added value of intelligent EV brands has increased significantly, bringing about consumption upgrading in the automobile industry. Apart from intelligence and quality of the vehicles, charging quality improvement is also important. An article (Can the Battery Swap Mode that NIO and BAIC BJEV Both Bet on Overturn the industrial ecology?) released by ResearchInChina in August 2018 clearly pointed out that NIO builds a closed business scenario via battery swap mode to greatly enhance its brand value and service level, which is a very clever business strategy.

Many OEMs have also realized the importance of closed (or semi-closed) charging network. Medium and high-end start-up brands such as Tesla, NIO, Xpeng, Lixiang and other, as well as high-end EV brands of traditional OEMs, such as Geely ZEEKR, GAC Aion, BAIC ARCFOX, SAIC R, VW ID, etc., have begun or planned to layout in super charging station sector.

charging 5_副本.png

According to our analysis, OEMs currently mainly adopts three charging network construction and operation modes:


Mode 1: Fully self-built and self-operated "closed supercharging" system

This mode demands high costs and very high market ownership to maintain operation, represented by Tesla. In China, Tesla has laid a large number of charging piles. Although it has successively switched to the national standard interface, in fact Tesla's charging network is rarely open to the public, being a very closed charging network. Tesla has always claimed that it will allow to open super-charging piles to its peers, but we believe that the possibility of opening up in the short term is very small.

Tesla has built over 800 super charging stations and 6,300 super charging piles in China, supporting more than 710 destination charging stations, with charging network covering more than 290 cities. In 2021, its super charging pile factory in Shanghai was put into operation, with an initial planned annual production capacity of 10,000 units, mainly V3 super charging piles.

With extensive laying of Tesla's closed charging network, Tesla has actually formed a strong consumer barrier in China. Even if it faces many doubts in the short term, it will still occupy an important position in China in the long run. Its closed charging network has become one of the key factors for enterprises to achieve successful operation.

charging 6.png

Mode 2: Fully self-built and self-operated "closed battery swap + open supercharging" system

Apart from supercharging station, battery swap station is also the main way for the charging layout of OEMs. NIO regards battery swap business as one of its core business models. It introduced car-electricity separation mode and led the establishment of Wuhan Weineng Battery Asset Co., Ltd. to be responsible for the management and operation of batteries.

In April 2021, NIO worked with State Grid to deploy the 2nd Gen of battery swap stations nationwide. Its brand-new battery swap technology supports the function of in-car one-button battery swap, eliminating the need of getting off the bus. Up to 312 battery swap services are provided every day, effectively improving battery swap efficiency.

As of June 2021, NIO has laid out 249 battery swap stations and 177 super-charging stations nationwide, including 1,408 super-charging piles. NIO partnered with State Grid to release the 2nd Gen battery swap station, planning to layout 500 units of battery swap stations nationwide. With the gradual improvement of NIO's car charging and battery swap network, we predict that NIO may properly lower the brand pricing to occupy the market of RMB 250,000 to RMB 350,000 range.

charging 7_副本.png

Mode 3: Cooperative "Open supercharge" system + partial self-built and self-operated "closed supercharge" system

Differed from the relatively closed charging network construction and operation modes of NIO and Tesla, Xpeng mainly cooperates with third-party operators such as TELD to build free supercharging network, greatly reducing network laying and operation costs.

In addition, Xpeng has also started the construction of its own-brand exclusive charging stations similar to those of Tesla and NIO so as to further upgrade charging brand service. By the end of 2021, Xpeng will plan to build over 500 units of branded super-charging stations. We expect that Xpeng will raise the price of its pure electric SUV to be released, and the closed charging network will be the key breakthrough point for enhancing its brand value.

charging 8.png

So far, Xpeng’s overall charging network layout has reached 164 cities, 1140 units of free charging stations and 19,019 free charging piles (some of which are self-built by Xpeng), expected to cover over 200 major cities nationwide by the end of 2021. Xpeng sales have surged since the release of its Lifetime Free Charging Plan (3,000 KWh per year) in Sept.2020.

charging 9_副本.png

In addition, VW (China), FAW, JAC and Wanbang New Energy jointly established CAMS Kemeth, a charging operator, which adopts an operation mode similar to that of Xpeng, namely, a combination of open + partially closed (ground lock).

For other OEMs, we think that they are more likely to adopt mode 3. But each selects varied strategies and laying ideas. For instance, the newly released Geely ZEEKR is the first 800V platform model in China, supporting rapid charging at 360kW. It can drive 120km after just 5 minutes of charging. According to the plan, ZEEKR will complete the construction of 290 charging stations and 2,800 charging piles by 2021, and build 2,200 charging stations and 20,000 charging piles by the end of 2023. So far, ZEEKR’s fast charging network has not been officially unveiled.

In the future, with the promotion of 800V high-voltage fast charging architecture technology, it is a trend for both foreign-funded enterprises and independent brands to conduct product layout in high-voltage platform, and he self-built self-operated charging network of high-end intelligent EV brands will be accelerated.

1. Overview of Charging Station/Pile Industry

1.1 EV Charging Infrastructure
1.1.1 Definition and Classification
1.1.2 Charging Modes
1.1.3 Classification of Charging Technology
1.1.4 Composition of Charging Stations
1.1.5 Cost Structure of Charging Stations
1.1.6 Configuration of Public Charging Stations
1.1.7 Industry Chain of Charging Piles
1.1.8 Upstream of Charging Pile Industry Chain - Manufacturing End
1.1.9 Midstream of Charging Pile Industry Chain - Operation End (Constructor and Operator)

1.2 Charging Port and Charging Gun
1.2.1 Definition of Charging Port
1.2.2 Classification of Charging Port
1.2.3 Classification of Charging Gun

2 Policies on Charging Infrastructure Industry in China

2.1 Electric Vehicle
2.1.1 Purchase Tax Cuts
2.1.2 Fiscal Subsidies for Purchase (I)
2.1.3 Fiscal Subsidies for Purchase (II)
2.1.4 Fiscal Subsidies for Purchase (III)
2.1.5 Fiscal Subsidies for Use
2.1.6 Policies on Promotion

2.2 EV Charging Station
2.2.1 Subsidies for Charging Facilities (Nation level)
2.2.2 Notification on the Incentive Policy of Charging Infrastructures for New Energy Vehicles and the Enhancement of the Promotion and Application of New Energy Vehicles
2.2.3 Planning for Charging Facilities Industry (Nation level) (I)
2.2.4 Planning for Charging Facilities Industry (Nation level) (II)
2.2.5 Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Technology Roadmap 2.0 Propose to Realize Intelligent Manufacturing of Charging Facility by Combining Intelligence and Digitalization 
2.2.6 Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Technology Roadmap 2.0-Charging Infrastructure Overall Roadmap
2.2.7 Program of Building National Strength in Transportation  
2.2.8 Subsidies/Planning for Charging Facilities in China- (by City) 

2.3 Other Policies
2.3.1 Basic Electricity Price for EV Charging
2.3.2 Service Charge for EV Charging
2.3.3 Promotion of V2G Coordinative Innovation and Demo

3 Development of EV around the World and in China

3.1 Global EV Market
3.1.1 Ownership
3.1.2 Ownership in Major Countries and Regions
3.1.3 Comparison of Sales Growth in Major Countries and Regions
3.1.4 Electrification Target in Major Countries and Regions
3.1.5 Policies and Incentives of Light Vehicles in Major Countries and Regions
3.1.6 Forecast on EV and Power Battery
3.1.7 Sales Forecast in Major Countries and Regions
3.1.8 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles
3.1.9 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles (by Model)
3.1.10 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles in Europe
3.1.11 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles in the United States

3.2 Chinese EV Market
3.2.1 Overall Sales Volume
3.2.2 Overall Sales Volume-by Fuel Type
3.2.3 Sales Volume of New Energy Passenger Car
3.2.4 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles-by Level
3.2.5 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles-by Brand
3.2.6 Sales Volume of Passenger Vehicles-by Model
3.2.7 Output of Commercial Vehicles
3.2.8 Sales Volume of Buses
3.2.9 Sales Volume of Special Vehicles

3.3 EV Charging Solutions in China
3.3.1 Charging Solutions for BEV
3.3.2 Charging Solutions for PHEV

4 Development of EV Charging Facilities in Foreign Countries

4.1 Policies and Characteristics
4.1.1 Development Plans and Characteristics
4.1.2 Fiscal Subsidies
4.1.3 Major Policies of Biden Government

4.2 Status Quo and Trend
4.2.1 Development of Charging Facilities
4.2.2 Ownership of Public Charging Piles
4.2.3 Ownership of Public Charging Piles in Major Countries
4.2.4 Car-to-Pile Ratio in Major Countries

4.3 Charging Port Standard
4.3.1 Major Standards
4.3.2 Major Standards Developing Organizations
4.3.3 Charging Port Characteristics of Major Regions
4.3.4 AC Charging Port
4.3.5 DC Charging Port
4.3.6 Combined Charging Port
4.3.7 Charging Port Standards for Main Auto Models

4.4 Typical Company-Tesla
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Operation
4.4.3 R&D and Capacity
4.4.4 EV Sales
4.4.5 EV Sales Forecast
4.4.6 Suppliers
4.4.7 Battery and Battery Material Suppliers in China
4.4.8 Charging Pile Suppliers in China
4.4.9 Non-Core Parts Suppliers in China
4.4.10 Distribution of Tesla’s Charging Stations Worldwide
4.4.11 Distribution of Tesla’s Charging Stations in China
4.4.12 Super Charging Piles
4.4.13 Household Charging Piles

4.5 Typical Organization- CHAdeMO Association
4.5.1 Profile
4.5.2 Constitution
4.5.3 Technical Structure
4.5.4 Charging Interface
4.5.5 Main Charging Pile Product
4.5.6 Main Auto Models
4.5.7 V2X
4.5.8 V2X Demo Project
4.5.9 Construction Plan of Charging Station

4.6 Wireless Charging
4.6.1 Principle
4.6.2 Standards
4.6.3 Development
4.6.4 Latest Progress
4.6.5 Technical Route
4.6.6 Status Quo (I)
4.6.7 Status Quo (II)
4.6.8 Status Quo (III)
4.6.9 Solution: Qualcomm Halo
4.6.10 Technical Parameters
4.6.11 Main Wireless Charing Technologies

4.7 G2V/V2G/V2H
4.7.1 Technical principle
4.7.2 V2X Charging and Discharging Technology 
4.7.3 V2G Technology
4.7.4 V2G Technical Framework
4.7.5 Vehicle Network Coordination Change the Energy Loss and Peak Load of Disordered Charging
4.7.6 Large Scale Commercialization of V2G Still Needs Time

4.8 BaaS + Battery Swap Network Mode
4.8.1 Development Environment of BaaS + Battery Swap Network 
4.8.2 Promotion Value of Battery Swap Mode
4.8.3 Business Mode of Battery Swap
4.8.4 Comparison of Battery Swap Technology and DC Fast Charging Technology
4.8.5 Battery Swap Mode Will Coexist with Charging Mode in China, and the Application Scenario of Operating Vehicles Is Promising

4.9 Flexible Charging Stack
4.9.1 Technology
4.9.2 Advantage
4.10 Status Quo and Trend of Global Charging Technology 
4.11 Status Quo and Trend of Chinese Charging Technology

5. Development of Charging Station/Pile in China

5.1 Ownership and Car-to-Pile Ratio of New Energy Vehicles
5.1.1 Ownership and Car-to-Pile Ratio in China
5.1.2 Ownership and Charging Operation Demand of New Energy Vehicles in China


5.2 Operation of Public Charging Pile 
5.2.1 Development Course
5.2.2 Distribution

5.3 Distribution and Plan of Charging Facilities (by Province)
5.3.1 Northeast/North China/East China
5.3.2 Central/South China
5.3.3 Southwest/Northwest China

5.4 Highway Charging Stations
5.4.1 Configuration Standard
5.4.2 Charging Mode
5.4.3 Charging Fee
5.4.4 Development Plan
5.4.5 Bidding Number of the State Grid
5.4.6 Bidding Power and Bid-Winning Enterprises of the State Grid

5.5 Competition Pattern of Charging Facilities in China
5.5.1 Charging Service Market Competition May Increase Significantly
5.5.2 Competition Pattern of Major Charging Operators 

5.6 Profit Model of Charging Facilities in China
5.6.1 Operational Value Chain
5.6.2 Business Mode (I)
5.6.3 Business Mode (II)
5.6.4 Head players Have Realized the Break-Even and Started Refined Operations
5.6.5 Innovative Business Models Will Emerge in Succession
5.6.6 Internet + Charging Pile
5.6.7 Single Pile Break-Even Table of Charging Pile

5.7 Development Trend of Charging Facilities in China
5.7.1 Main Problems
5.7.2 Suggestions
5.7.3 Charging Network Being an Irresistible Trend for EV Charging Technology

6. Major Charging Operators in China

6.1 TELD
6.1.1 Profile 
6.1.2 Financing for Development 
6.1.3 Charging Network Solution (1) 
6.1.4 Charging Network Solution (2) 
6.1.5 Charging Network Solution (3) 
6.1.6 Charging Equipment 
6.1.7 Intelligent Flexible Charging Bow
6.1.8 Novel High-power Charging Equipment (1) 
6.1.9 Novel High-power Charging Equipment (2) 
6.1.10 Safety Assessment of Electric Vehicle Charging System Based on Big Data  
6.1.11 Charging Projects in 2020
6.1.12 Charging Equipment Utilization Rate and Charging Capacity 
6.1.13 Charging Business Operation Mode
6.1.14 Charging Business Scope 
6.1.15 Partners in Charging Business  

6.2 Star Charge 
6.2.1 Profile 
6.2.2 Development History and Financing 
6.2.3 Charging Business Operation 
6.2.4 Charging Solution 
6.2.5 DC Integrated Charger
6.2.6 DC Split Charger
6.2.7 AC Product Line 
6.2.8 Product Line for Charging Facilities abroad
6.2.9 Product Line for Control Parts
6.2.10 Application Cases 
6.2.11 Partners in Charging Business  

6.3 State Grid
6.3.1 Charging Facility Construction Planning
6.3.2 Charging Facility Construction
6.3.3 Highway Charging Network
6.3.4 Charging Facility Operation 
6.3.5 Charging Facility Tender 

6.4 Ykccn.com 
6.4.1 Profile 
6.4.2 Charging Facility Operation 
6.4.3 Charging Facility Distribution

6.5 EV Power
6.5.1 Profile 
6.5.2 Charging Equipment  
6.5.3 AC Charging Equipment 
6.5.4 DC Charging Equipment 
6.5.5 Value-added Services
6.5.6 Cloud Edge Integrated Charging Pile Operation Solution (EMQ +EV Power) for Charging in the Community
6.5.7 Charging Facility Distribution 
6.5.8 Charging Facility Operation 
6.5.9 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.6 SAIC Anyo Charging
6.6.1 Profile 
6.6.2 Charging Equipment
6.6.3 Operation Platform 
6.6.4 Charging Facility Application 
6.6.5 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.7 Shenzhen CLOU Electronics (www.carenergynet.cn)
6.7.1 Profile 
6.7.2 Revenue and Gross Margin
6.7.3 Main Business
6.7.4 Charging Platform 
6.7.5 Charging Solution (1) 
6.7.6 Charging Solution (2) 
6.7.7 Charging Facility Operation 
6.7.8 Charging Equipment
6.7.9 AC Charging Equipment (1) 
6.7.10 AC Charging Equipment (2) 
6.7.11 DC Charging Equipment (1) 
6.7.12 DC Charging Equipment (2) 
6.7.13 Charging Facility Distribution 
6.7.14 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.8 Potevio New Energy
6.8.1 Profile 
6.8.2 Charging Business Scope
6.8.3 Charging Operation Services 
6.8.4 Charging Services Operation Case (1) 
6.8.6 Charging Intelligent Cloud Management Platform 
6.8.7 Charging Business Model
6.8.8 Charging Facility Operation and Distribution 
6.8.9 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.9 ICHARGE
6.9.1 Profile 
6.9.2 AC Charging Equipment 
6.9.3 DC Charging Equipment 
6.9.4 Parameters of DC Charging Equipment 
6.9.5 Charging Cloud Platform 
6.9.6 Charging Business Operation Case 
6.9.7 Charging Facility Operation 
6.9.8 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.10 Winsky New Energy
6.10.1 Profile 
6.10.2 Charging Solution 
6.10.3 Charging Facility Operation 
6.10.4 Charging Facility Operation Case 
6.10.5 Cooperation in Charging Business 

6.11 Huashang Sanyou
6.11.1 Profile 
6.11.2 Charging Equipment
6.11.3 Charging Business Operation 


6.12 Business Models and Charging Standards of 12 Major Charging Operators in China

7. Charging Facility Layout of Major Automakers

7.1 Wuling  
7.1.1 Charging Facility Layout 
7.1.2 Charging Facility —Liuzhou Model
7.1.3 Charging Mode Analysis
7.1.4 Cooperation in Charging Facilities

7.2 NIO
7.2.1 Charging Facility Layout 
7.2.2 Swap Station
7.2.3 Charging Vehicles
7.2.4 Super Charging Station
7.2.5 Cooperation in Charging Facilities

7.3 Xpeng
7.3.1 Charging Facility Layout 
7.3.2 Super Charging Station
7.3.3 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 
7.3.4 Usage Process of Charging Facilities

7.4 Tesla
7.4.1 Construction of Super Charging Station
7.4.2 Mobile Charging and Automatic Charging Services

7.5 Changan Automobile
7.5.1 New Energy Household Charging Pile Construction
7.5.2 Construction of New Energy Swap Station
7.5.3 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 

7.6 BYD
7.6.1 Charging Facility Layout 
7.6.2 Private Charging Services
7.6.3 Public Charging Services
7.6.4 Mobile Charging Services
7.6.5 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 

7.7 BAIC BJEV
7.7.1 Construction of Swap Station
7.7.2 Construction of ARCFOX Super Charging Station 
7.7.3 Private Charging Services 
7.7.4 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 

7.8 Geely 
7.8.1 Construction of Swap Station 
7.8.2 ZEEKR Super Charging Station 
7.8.3 Automatic Charging Services
7.8.4 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 

7.9 SAIC
7.9.1 Construction of Super Charging Station
7.9.2 Cooperation in Charging Facilities 

7.10 Volkswagen
7.10.1 Global Charging Facility Strategy
7.10.2 Cooperation in Charging Facilities in China 

7.11 Other OEMs
7.11.1 Super Charging Station of GAC Aion 
7.11.2 Mobile Charging Robot of Aiways Auto
7.11.3 BMW’s Cooperative Charging Facilities 

7.12 Charging Pile Construction of Major OEMs
7.12.1 Charging Pile Layout of Major OEMs
7.12.2 Super Charging Station Construction of Major OEMs 
7.12.3 Swap Services of Major OEMs
7.12.4 Mobile Charging Services of Major OEMs
7.12.5 Automatic Charging Services of Major OEMs
7.12.6 Cost Comparison of Household Basic Charging Facilities of Major Automakers
7.12.7 Installation Comparison of Household Basic Charging Facilities of Major Automakers
 

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Automotive XR (Extended Reality) is an innovative technology that integrates VR (Virtual Reality), AR (Augmented Reality) and MR (Mixed Reality) technologies into vehicle systems. It can bring drivers...

OEMs’ Next-generation In-vehicle Infotainment (IVI) System Trends Report, 2024

OEMs’ Next-generation In-vehicle Infotainment (IVI) System Trends Report, 2024 released by ResearchInChina systematically analyzes the iteration process of IVI systems of mainstream automakers in Chin...

Global and China Automotive Lighting System Research Report, 2023-2024

Installations of intelligent headlights and interior lighting systems made steady growth. From 2019 to 2023, the installations of intelligent headlights and interior lighting systems grew steadily. I...

Automotive Display, Center Console and Cluster Industry Report, 2024

Automotive display has become a hotspot major automakers compete for to create personalized and differentiated vehicle models. To improve users' driving experience and meet their needs for human-compu...

Global and China Passenger Car T-Box Market Report, 2024

Global and China Passenger Car T-Box Market Report, 2024 combs and summarizes the overall global and Chinese passenger car T-Box markets and the status quo of independent, centralized, V2X, and 5G T-B...

AI Foundation Models’ Impacts on Vehicle Intelligent Design and Development Research Report, 2024

AI foundation models are booming. The launch of ChapGPT and SORA is shocking. Scientists and entrepreneurs at AI frontier point out that AI foundation models will rebuild all walks of life, especially...

Analysis on Geely's Layout in Electrification, Connectivity, Intelligence and Sharing

Geely, one of the leading automotive groups in China, makes comprehensive layout in electrification, connectivity, intelligence and sharing. Geely boasts more than ten brands. In 2023, it sold a tota...

48V Low-voltage Power Distribution Network (PDN) Architecture Industry Report, 2024

Automotive low-voltage PDN architecture evolves from 12V to 48V system. Since 1950, the automotive industry has introduced the 12V system to power lighting, entertainment, electronic control units an...

Automotive Ultrasonic Radar and OEMs’ Parking Route Research Report, 2024

1. Over 220 million ultrasonic radars will be installed in 2028. In recent years, the installations of ultrasonic radars in passenger cars in China surged, up to 121.955 million units in 2023, jumpin...

Automotive AI Foundation Model Technology and Application Trends Report, 2023-2024

Since 2023 ever more vehicle models have begun to be connected with foundation models, and an increasing number of Tier1s have launched automotive foundation model solutions. Especially Tesla’s big pr...

Qualcomm 8295 Based Cockpit Domain Controller Dismantling Analysis Report

ResearchInChina dismantled 8295-based cockpit domain controller of an electric sedan launched in December 2023, and produced the report SA8295P Series Based Cockpit Domain Controller Analysis and Dism...

Global and China Automotive Comfort System (Seating system, Air Conditioning System) Research Report, 2024

Automotive comfort systems include seating system, air conditioning system, soundproof system and chassis suspension to improve comfort of drivers and passengers. This report highlights seating system...

Automotive Memory Chip and Storage Industry Report, 2024

The global automotive memory chip market was worth USD4.76 billion in 2023, and it is expected to reach USD10.25 billion in 2028 boosted by high-level autonomous driving. The automotive storage market...

Automotive AUTOSAR Platform Research Report, 2024

AUTOSAR Platform research: the pace of spawning the domestic basic software + full-stack chip solutions quickens. In the trend towards software-defined vehicles, AUTOSAR is evolving towards a more o...

China Passenger Car Electronic Control Suspension Industry Research Report, 2024

Research on Electronic Control Suspension: The assembly volume of Air Suspension increased by 113% year-on-year in 2023, and the magic carpet suspension of independent brands achieved a breakthrough ...

Global and China Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Research Report, 2023-2024

1. In 2025, the share of plug-in/extended-range hybrid electric passenger cars by sales in China is expected to rise to 40%. In 2023, China sold 2.754 million plug-in/extended-range hybrid electric p...

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