Global and China Hybrid Vehicle Industry Research Report, 2021
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Research on hybrid vehicles: Five global major hybrid technologies compete fiercely in China

The hybrid technology is one of the important technology roadmaps to achieve emission peak, carbon neutrality and dual credit compliance.

In September 2020, President Xi Jinping pledged that China would reach its CO2 emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. For this goal, China proposes to carry out transformation and innovation in ten fields, among which the construction of a green low-carbon transportation system and the promotion of green and low-carbon technological innovation involve automotive energy-saving technologies covering electric vehicles, hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cells. 

Measures for the Parallel Management of Average Fuel Consumption of Passenger Car Companies and New Energy Vehicle Credits (hereinafter referred to as the dual credit policy) stipulates the average fuel consumption credits of passenger car companies and new energy vehicle credits. In 2020, the passenger car industry’s fuel consumption credits were -7.33 million and new energy vehicle credits 3.3 million. In the face of the regulation on emission peak, carbon neutrality and double integration, hybrid technology will be one of the important technical routes for automakers to meet the standards for automakers.

Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Technology Roadmap 2.0 released by China-SAE points out the development goal of China’s automobile industry: “the total industrial carbon emissions should reach the peak around 2028 in advance of the national carbon emission reduction commitment, and the total emissions should drop by more than 20% from the peak by 2035. The sales volume of new hybrid passenger cars should account for 50%-60% of traditional energy passenger cars by 2025, 75%-85% by 2030, and 100% by 2035. This clarifies that energy-saving vehicles do not represent a transitional technology, but a high-efficiency technology that allows engines and motors to complement each other, replaces internal combustion engine vehicles on a large scale within a reasonable price range, and reduces fuel consumption.

Five global major hybrid technologies compete fiercely in China

Currently, hybrid power is mainly being developed in Japan, the United States, Europe, and China which choose different hybrid technology roadmaps according to their technical reserves and development goals:

  1. Japanese cars are mainly powered by Toyota's Power-split (PS) and Honda's i-MMD series-parallel hybrid. Through strong hybrid, the best fuel-saving effect can be achieved. For example, Toyota THS available in Toyota Prius adopts a single planetary row structure design to maximize fuel economy in common vehicle speed ranges. Toyota is committed to licensing the hybrid technology to Chinese automakers. For example, the new-generation GAC Trumpchi GS8 hybrid system is planned to be equipped with the Julang Hybrid System composed of Trumpchi 2.0T engine and Toyota THS; Hunan Corun New Energy has purchased the core technology Toyota's THS for RMB1 and promoted the application in conjunction with Geely.
  2. American cars are mainly based on Power-split (PS) of GM and Ford; for example, the general hybrid power system of GM LaCrosse adopts a dual-row planetary structure design to achieve two “power split” modes (high and low speed modes) and one or multiple fixed gears so as to further improve the fuel economy and transmission efficiency of the car.
  3. German cars are mainly based on 48V low-voltage and high-voltage hybrid technology arranged in P0/P2. The system replaces traditional lead-acid batteries with power-type lithium-ion batteries with a voltage of 48V and an energy of less than 1kW·h, and replaces traditional starter motors and generators with B/ISG motors. A large number of Chinese plug-in models have exploited German technology roadmap and suppliers.
  4. Chinese automakers have transferred from the original technology diversification to the dual-motor-based series-parallel mode. For example, the GAC Trumpchi Electromechanical Coupling System (G-MC) adopts the series-parallel mode, which is mainly used for plug-in hybrid; BYD's DM-i super hybrid technology adopts the EHS to open up a new technology system in addition to Toyota's THS Power-split and Honda's i-MMD.
  5. The series extended-range hybrid power roadmap is represented by Nissan e-Power, Lixiang ONE, Dongfeng Voyah, etc.; In series mode, the engine and the electric motor are not mechanically connected, so the engine can obtain the best efficiency at different vehicle speeds and loads. In 2020, 32,600 Lixiang ONE cars were sold, ranking first in the extended-range field.

The world's mainstream OEMs have conducted diversified explorations in hybrid systems, and finally chose the hybrid strategy that is most suitable for their own models. We have summarized the hybrid strategies of the global mainstream automakers.

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Chinese automakers have developed hybrid systems independently to seize the hybrid market

In the context of energy saving and emission reduction, Chinese automakers have made efforts to develop the hybrid technology in recent years. They have launched self-developed hybrid systems, such as Great Wall Lemon DHT Hybrid System, BYD DM-i Super Hybrid, GAC Julang Hybrid System, Chery Kunpeng DHT System, etc.

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Sales Volume of China's Hybrid Vehicle Market Segments

(1) PHEV passenger cars
According to CPCA (China Passenger Car Association)’s data, the sales volume of PHEV passenger cars in China increased by 2.7% year-on-year to approximately 211,900 units in 2020. From January to June 2021, the sales volume reached 183,200 units.

At present, China's PHEV passenger cars companies are mainly represented by BYD, SAIC, and Lixiang. In 2020, SAIC ranked first with the sales volume of 59,900 PHEV passenger cars, followed by BYD and Lixiang with the sales volume of 51,700 and 32,600 respectively.

(2) HEV passenger cars
According to the data from CAAM (China Association of Automobile Manufacturers), the sales volume of HEV passenger cars in China jumped by 21.9% year-on-year to about 290,400 units in 2020, approximately 272,400 units in H1 2021. It is expected to hit 500,000 units in 2021;

In 2021, the sales volume of HEV passenger cars in China soars. On the one hand, Toyota has added dual-engine to a variety of models to meet demand for energy-efficient and fuel-efficient vehicles. On the other hand, China has raised higher requirements on carbon emission, which forces automakers to reduce emissions. Automakers mainly promote lower-displacement dual-engine vehicle models.

At present, the sales volume of HEV passenger cars in China is mainly contributed by GAC Toyota, FAW Toyota, GAC Honda, and Dongfeng Honda. The sales volume of GAC Toyota’s HEV passenger cars accounted for 32% of the total in 2020, and 41% in H1 2021 with a spike of 9 percentage points. Under the pressure of carbon emissions, Toyota actively boosts dual-engine models and has installed the dual engine technology on multiple models.

(3) 48V mild hybrid system
The 48V mild hybrid system is evolved from the 12V electrical system which is not completely abolished but continues to exist. The biggest advantage of the 48V mild hybrid system is that it can save much more energy and reduce emissions to comply with stringent emission policies at low costs:

1. The application of start-stop technology makes the carrying capacity of the traditional 12V system approach the limit. Electrical systems with higher carrying power are needed to achieve better energy-saving effects;
2. More and more electronic functions are integrated in a single vehicle, while the 12V system cannot match high-power electrical equipment.

In 2020, the sales volume of passenger cars equipped with the 48V mild hybrid system in China was swelled 39% year-on-year to 331,000 units. According to China Association of Automobile Manufacturers, 20.178 million passenger cars were sold in China in 2020, of which only 1.64% was 48V mild hybrid cars.  By 2025, the sales volume of passenger cars with the 48V mild hybrid system in China will reach 3.12 million units.

The 48V mild hybrid system can reduce fuel consumption to a certain extent at a low cost. Considering carbon emissions and costs, automakers are keen to install the 48V mild hybrid system on traditional fuel vehicles. However, from a consumer's point of view, the fuel saved by the 48V system is not obvious, so the subsequent promotion still requires continuous technological progress and cost reduction.

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Of course, 48V mild hybrid is only a transitional technology, not a solution that can be done once and for all. The 48V system can meet the average fuel consumption limit of passenger cars in the fourth and fifth stage (the fourth stage: 5.0L/100km (2020); the fifth stage: 4.0L/100km (2025) with a reduction of 42%), but it is difficult to realize the goal in the sixth stage (3.2L/100km (2030)). Therefore, Chinese automakers need to step up research and development of strong HEV, PHEV, high-efficiency engines and other advanced technologies while introducing the 48V mild hybrid technology so as to prompt the long-term development.

1 Overview of Hybrid Vehicles 

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Work Steps
1.3 Hybrid Solutions
1.4 Development Advantages
1.5 Industry Chain
1.6 Development Trends

2 Hybrid Vehicle Industry Policies and Status Quo
2.1 Global and Chinese Carbon Emission Policies
2.1.1 Changes in Total Global Carbon Emissions
2.1.2 Emission Peak Process of Major Countries in the World
2.1.3 Carbon Neutrality Process of Major Countries in the World
2.1.4 Vehicle Emission Roadmaps of Major Countries in the World
2.1.5 China's Automotive Emission Regulations
2.1.6 The Opening of China's Carbon Emission Trading Market Promotes the Realization of the Goal of Carbon Neutrality
2.1.7 Estimation of China's Automotive Carbon Emissions

2.2 China's Hybrid Vehicle Policies
2.2.1 Policies
2.2.2 CAFC Points and NEV Points of China's Passenger Car Industry in 2019  
2.2.3 CAFC Points and NEV Points of China's Passenger Car Industry in 2020 (1) 
2.2.4 CAFC Points and NEV Points of China's Passenger Car Industry in 2020 (2) 
2.2.5 Energy-Saving and New Energy Vehicle Technology Roadmap 2.0  
2.2.6 New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035)
2.2.7 The average Fuel Consumption of China's New Passenger Cars Should Drop to 4.0 L/100km in 2025

2.3 Global New Energy Vehicle Market
2.3.1 Global Electric Vehicle Ownership
2.3.2 Electric Vehicle Ownership in Major Countries/Regions in the World
2.3.3 Comparison of Electric Vehicle Sales Volume Growth in Major Countries/Regions in the World
2.3.4 Electrification Goals of Major Countries/Regions in the World
2.3.5 Light Vehicle Policies and Incentives in Major Countries/Regions in the World
2.3.6 Global Electric Vehicle and Power Battery Forecast
2.3.7 Electric Vehicle Sales Volume Forecast for Major Countries/Regions in the World

2.4 China's New Energy Vehicle Market
2.4.1 China's Motor Vehicle/Car Ownership
2.4.2 China's Car Ownership by City
2.4.3 China New Energy Vehicle Output and Sales Volume
2.4.4 China New Energy Vehicle Output and Sales Volume by Fuel Type
2.4.5 Sales Volume of New Energy Passenger Cars in China
2.4.6 Sales Volume of New Energy Commercial Vehicles in China

2.5 Micro Hybrid Market (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)
2.5.1 Global Micro Hybrid Market Size (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)
2.5.2 China’s Micro Hybrid Market Size (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)
2.5.3 China’s Micro Hybrid Market (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Automatic Start/Stop Installation Rate
2.5.4 China’s Micro Hybrid Market (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Automatic Stop-Go Vehicle Sales Volume/Proportion
2.5.5 Energy-saving Effects and Usage Costs of Hybrid Start/Stop System

2.6 Mild/ Moderate Hybrid Market (48V+BSG/ISG System) 
2.6.1 48V Application Strategy of Global OEMs
2.6.2 48V Application Strategy of Chinese OEMs
2.6.3 Sales Volume of 48V Mild Hybrid Models in China,2016-2025E
2.6.4 Monthly Sales Volume of 48V Mild Hybrid Models in China,2020    
2.6.5 Competitive Landscape of 48V Mild Hybrid Models in China,2020 
2.6.6 48V Mild Hybrid Business Layout of Chinese Independent Automakers (1) 
2.6.7 48V Mild Hybrid Business Layout of Chinese Independent Automakers (2) 
2.6.8 48V Mild Hybrid Business Layout of Chinese Joint Venture Automakers (1) 
2.6.9 48V Mild Hybrid Business Layout of Chinese Joint Venture Automakers (2) 
2.6.10 Economic Benefits of 48V Hybrid System
2.6.11 Cost Performance Advantages of 48V Hybrid System
2.6.12 China's 48V System Core Component Supply Chain

2.7 Strong Hybrid Market (HEV, PHEV 150V+)
2.7.1 Sales Volume of HEV Passenger Cars in China
2.7.2 Competitive Landscape of HEV Passenger Cars in China
2.7.3 Sales Volume of HEV Passenger Cars in China by Model
2.7.4 Development Trend of HEV Passenger Cars in China
2.7.5 Sales Volume of PHEV Passenger Cars in China
2.7.6 Competitive Landscape of PHEV Passenger Cars in China
2.7.7 Sales Volume of PHEV Passenger Cars in China by Model

3 Hybrid Vehicle Technology Roadmap  
3.1 Classification of Hybrid System Technology (by Power Structure)
3.1.1 Principle of Hybrid System Technology Classification (by Power Structure)
3.1.2 Comparison of Hybrid Systems with Different Power Structures
3.1.3 Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV)-Structure and Composition
3.1.4 Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV)-Working Mode
3.1.5 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Structure and Composition (1)
3.1.6 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Structure and Composition (2)
3.1.7 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Drive Mode
3.1.8 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Working Mode
3.1.9 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Parallel Single Motor
3.1.10 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)- Series and Parallel Dual-motor
3.1.11 Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PSHEV)- Structure and Composition
3.1.12 Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PSHEV)- Working Mode
3.1.13 Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PSHEV)- Series-Parallel Dual-motor (1)
3.1.14 Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PSHEV)- Series-Parallel Dual-motor (2)

3.2 Classification of Hybrid System Technology (by Drive Motor Power)
3.2.1 Principle of Hybrid System Technology Classification (by Drive Motor Power)
3.2.2 Three Main Micro Hybrid System Architectures
3.2.3 Classification of Micro Hybrid (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)
3.2.4 Micro Hybrid (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Separate Starter/Generator Start/Stop System
3.2.5 Micro Hybrid (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Integrated Starter/Generator Start/Stop System
3.2.6 Micro Hybrid (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Mazda SISS Intelligent Start/Stop System (1)
3.2.7 Micro Hybrid (12V Automotive Start/Stop System)-Mazda SISS Intelligent Start/Stop System (2)
3.2.8 Mild Hybrid (48V System)
3.2.9 Moderate Hybrid (ISG Architecture)
3.2.10 Strong Hybrid (HEV, PHEV)
3.2.11 Classification of Hybrid System Technology (by Drive Motor Power)- Summary & Comparison

3.3 Classification of Hybrid System Technology (by Motor Position)
3.3.1 Principle of Hybrid System Technology Classification (by Motor Position)
3.3.2 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P0 Motor
3.3.3 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P1 Motor
3.3.4 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P2 Motor
3.3.5 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P3 Motor
3.3.6 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P4 Motor
3.3.7 Classification of Hybrid System Technology - P2.5 Motor
3.3.8 Classification of Hybrid System by Motor Position - Summary (1)
3.3.9 Classification of Hybrid System by Motor Position - Summary (2)

3.4 Classification of Hybrid System Technology (by Hybrid Degree/Fuel Saving Rate Technology
3.4.1 Six Categories of Hybrid System by Hybrid Degree/Fuel Saving Rate Technology  

3.5 Key Technology of Hybrid Vehicle Industry Chain
3.5.1 Key Components of Hybrid System
3.5.2 Key Hybrid System Technology
3.5.3 Classification of Electric Drive System
3.5.4 Electric Drive System - Planetary Row Structure
3.5.5 Electric Drive System - Single-axis Parallel Structure (PII)
3.5.6 Electric drive System - Power-split Structure (PIII and PIV)
3.5.7 Electric Drive System - Coupling Structure between Shafts
3.5.8 Structure of Hybrid System Motor Controller 
3.5.9 Hybrid System Transmission - Introduction/Working Mode
3.5.10 Classification of Hybrid System Control Strategy

3.6 Hybrid Technology Development Trend
3.6.1 Development Trend of Global and China’s Hybrid Technology
3.6.2 Global Hybrid Technology Development Trend by Region

3.7 Comparison of Hybrid Vehicle Technology Solutions Inside and Outside of China
3.7.1 New Energy Vehicle Development Strategies of Automakers
3.7.2 Hybrid Technology Roadmaps of Global Mainstream Automakers
3.7.3 Hybrid Development Trend of Global Mainstream OEMs
3.7.4 Hybrid Application Strategies of Global Mainstream OEMs (1)
3.7.5 Hybrid Application Strategies of Global Mainstream OEMs (2)
3.7.6 Parameter Comparison of Mainstream Brand Hybrid Systems in China
4 Hybrid Vehicle Technology Providers

4.1 Valeo
4.1.1 Profile 
4.1.2 Automotive Energy Conservation and Hybrid Business Strategy
4.1.3 Hybrid Operation
4.1.4 Hybrid Product Line
4.1.5 Introduction to Start/Stop System
4.1.6 Automobile Electric Supercharger
4.1.7 48V Mild Hybrid System (1)
4.1.8 48V Mild Hybrid System (2)
4.1.9 Dynamics of Hybrid Projects
4.1.10 Hybrid Layout in China
4.1.11 Hybrid Models Supported
4.1.12 Development Goals of Hybrid Strategy

4.2 Bosch
4.2.1 Profile 
4.2.2 Operation 
4.2.3 High-voltage Hybrid (1)
4.2.4 High-voltage Hybrid (2)
4.2.5 High-voltage Hybrid (3)
4.2.6 High-voltage Hybrid: The Third Generation of Power Electronics
4.2.7 High-voltage Hybrid: Independent Electric Generator
4.2.8 High Voltage/48V Hybrid: Electronic Engine Control Unit
4.2.9 48V Hybrid Solution (1)
4.2.10 48V Hybrid Solution (2)
4.2.11 48V Hybrid Solution: 48V DC/DC Converter
4.2.12 48V Hybrid Solution: 48V Battery
4.2.13 Hybrid Business Strategy 

4.3 Continental / Vitesco Technologies
4.3.1 Profile
4.3.2 Operation
4.3.3 Development Trend of Powertrain Technology Business
4.3.4 Hybrid Product Line (1)
4.3.5 Hybrid Product Line (2)
4.3.6 48V High Power Hybrid System 
4.3.7 Electric Drive System
4.3.8 Global Layout
4.3.9 Layout of New Energy in China

4.4 BorgWarner/Delphi
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Hybrid Revenue
4.4.3 hybrid Vehicle Technology
4.4.4 Hybrid Products
4.4.5 Components of Hybrid Vehicles
4.4.6 P2 Hybrid Module (1)
4.4.7 P2 Hybrid Module (2)
4.4.8 P3 Hybrid Architecture
4.4.9 P4 Hybrid Architecture
4.4.10 PS Hybrid Architecture
4.4.11 48V Power Electronics
4.4.12 Cooperation in Hybrid
4.4.13 Hybrid Development Trend

4.5 Schaeffler
4.5.1 Profile 
4.5.2 Hybrid Development History 
4.5.3 Hybrid Components and System 
4.5.4 Hybrid Development Strategy 
4.5.5 Hybrid Development Plan 2030 
4.5.6 Automotive Technology Division (1)
4.5.7 Automotive Technology Division (2)
4.5.8 Three-in-one Power System Combination
4.5.9 Application of Three-in-one Power System Combination
4.5.10 P2 Hybrid Module System
4.5.11 Application of P2 Hybrid Module System 
4.5.12 Electric Drive Axle
4.5.13 Thermal Management System
4.5.14 R&D Investment
4.5.15 Investment in Hybrid Products
4.5.16 Customers of Hybrid Products

4.6 GKN 
4.6.1 Profile 
4.6.2 Development History 
4.6.3 Modular Electronic Drive System
4.6.4 Multi-mode Hybrid Transmission
4.6.5 Torque Vector TWINSTER? EDRIVE System 
4.6.6 Hybrid Application (1) 
4.6.7 Hybrid Application (2) 
4.6.8 Hybrid Business Strategy 
4.6.9 Global Distribution

4.7 Hunan Corun New Energy 
4.7.1 Profile 
4.7.2 Equity Structure
4.7.3 Development History
4.7.4 Main Business
4.7.5 CHS System Solution 
4.7.6 CHS1800/2800 Series (Applicable to Passenger Cars) 
4.7.7 CHS3800 Series (Applicable to Light Trucks, Medium Buses, etc.)
4.7.8 CHS18000 System (Applicable to Medium Trucks, Heavy Trucks, Large Buses, etc.)
4.7.9 Main Power Batteries for Hybrid Vehicles
4.7.10 Parameters of Automotive Power Battery
4.7.11 Business Model
4.7.12 Hybrid Business Strategy

5 Hybrid Vehicle Manufactures 

5.1 Toyota
5.1.1 Profile 
5.1.2 Hybrid Business Strategy 
5.1.3 Development History of Hybrid System THS
5.1.4 Hybrid System THS: Structural Principle
5.1.5 Hybrid System THS: Cross-sectional View
5.1.6 Hybrid System THS: Motor/PCU/IGBT
5.1.7 Hybrid System THS: Battery/Fuel Consumption
5.1.8 Hybrid System THS: PHEV vs HEV (1)
5.1.9 Hybrid System THS: PHEV vs HEV (2)
5.1.10 Hybrid System THS: PHEV vs HEV (3)
5.1.11 Hybrid System THS: Real Vehicle Position (1)
5.1.12 Hybrid System THS: Real Vehicle Position (2)
5.1.13 Hybrid Models
5.1.14 Parameters of Hybrid Models
5.1.15 Sales Volume of Hybrid Models
5.1.16 Development of Hybrid in China

5.2 Honda
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Hybrid Strategy
5.2.3 Main Components of Hybrid System
5.2.4 IMA Hybrid System: Structure/Parameters (1)
5.2.5 IMA Hybrid System: Structure/Parameters (2)
5.2.6 IMA Hybrid System: Engine
5.2.7 IMA Hybrid System: Generator/CVT Gearbox
5.2.8 IMA Hybrid System: IPU 
5.2.9 IMA Hybrid System: Working Mode
5.2.10 i-DCD Configuration
5.2.11 i-MMD Configuration: Structure
5.2.12 i-MMD Configuration: Parameters
5.2.13 i-MMD Configuration: Working Mode (1)
5.2.14 i-MMD Configuration: Working Mode (2)
5.2.15 i-MMD Configuration: Working Mode (3)
5.2.16 i-MMD Configuration: Fuel Saving Mode
5.2.17 i-MMD Configuration: Actual Test
5.2.18 i-MMD Configuration: Engine Technology
5.2.19 SH-AWD Configuration
5.2.20 Development of Hybrid in China

5.3 Nissan
5.3.1 Profile 
5.3.2 Goal of Carbon Neutrality in 2050
5.3.3 Structure of e-POWER Power System
5.3.4 Operation at All Working Conditions of e-POWER Power System
5.3.5 Energy Efficiency of e-POWER Power System
5.3.6 Comparison of Competitive Products of e-POWER Power System
5.3.7 Layout of e-POWER Power System in China

5.4 Volkswagen
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 Structure of Plug-in Hybrid Technology
5.4.3 Drive Mode of Plug-in Hybrid Technology
5.4.4 Working Mode of Plug-in Hybrid Technology
5.4.5 Plug-in Hybrid Models 

5.5 General Motors
5.5.1 Profile 
5.5.2 Hybrid Models 
5.5.3 Parameters of Hybrid Models
5.5.4 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Hybrid System
5.5.5 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Engine
5.5.6 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Motor
5.5.7 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Electronic Control
5.5.8 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Battery
5.5.9 LaCrosse/Malibu XL: Working Mode
5.5.10 Cadillac CT6
5.5.11 Chevrolet Volt

5.6 Volvo
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Mild Hybrid System 
5.6.3 Plug-in Hybrid System 
5.6.4 Plug-in Hybrid Models 

5.7 BMW
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 Hybrid Technology
5.7.3 Plug-in Hybrid Models 

5.8 BYD
5.8.1 Profile 
5.8.2 Hybrid Business Strategy 
5.8.3 Hybrid Technology Comparison
5.8.4 Main Features of DM-p Technology
5.8.5 Positioning of DM-p Technology
5.8.6 Composition of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology
5.8.7 Configuration of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology
5.8.8 Battery of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology 
5.8.9 Working Mode of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology
5.8.10 Power Source of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology
5.8.11 Advantages of DM-i Super Hybrid Technology
5.8.12 Models Supported by DM-i Super Hybrid Technology

5.9 Geely  
5.9.1 Profile 
5.9.2 Hybrid System Strategy
5.9.3 The First-generation Hybrid System GHS1.0
5.9.4 The Second-generation Hybrid System GHS2.0
5.9.5 Volvo Hybrid System
5.9.6 48V-BSG Mild Hybrid Power
5.9.7 7DCT/H Gearbox
5.9.8 P2.5 Architecture High-efficiency Intelligent Hybrid Powertrain /Extended Range Hybrid Technology

5.10 SAIC 
5.10.1 Profile 
5.10.2 Hybrid Business Strategy
5.10.3 Introduction to EDU Hybrid System
5.10.4 Principle of EDU Hybrid
5.10.5 EDU Hybrid High-power Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
5.10.6 Gearbox of EDU Hybrid System
5.10.7 Working Mode of EDU Hybrid System
5.10.8 10-speed Intelligent Electric Drive Transmission of EDU 2.0
5.10.9 Advantages of EDU 2.0
5.10.10 Comparison of Models with EDU Hybrid System
5.10.11 Global R&D Center/Manufacturing Base

5.11 GAC
5.11.1 Profile 
5.11.2 Hybrid Technology 
5.11.3 Julang Power Hybrid System 
5.11.4Julang Power Hybrid System - Platform Composition
5.11.5 Julang Power Hybrid System - Engine
5.11.6 Julang Power Hybrid System - Technical Advantages of the Fourth-generation 2.0ATK Engine
5.11.7 Julang Power Hybrid System - Engine thermal efficiency
5.11.8 Julang Power Hybrid System - Transmission
5.11.9 Julang Power Hybrid System - Hybrid Transmission
5.11.10 Julang Power Hybrid System -Models Supported 

5.12 Great Wall 
5.12.1 New Energy Planning
5.12.2 Hybrid Development
5.12.3 Lemon Platform
5.12.4 Lemon DHT: Hybrid Architecture
5.12.5 Lemon DHT: Power Form (1)
5.12.6 Lemon DHT: Power Form (2)
5.12.7 Lemon DHT: Components (1)
5.12.8 Lemon DHT: Components (2)
5.12.9 Lemon DHT: Working Modes
5.12.10 Lemon DHT: Control Logic
5.12.11 Lemon DHT: Application Scenarios
5.12.12 Lemon DHT: Models Supported
5.12.13 P2 Hybrid System
5.12.14 Global R&D and Production System

5.13 Chery
5.13.1 Hybrid Technology 
5.13.2 Kunpeng Fuel and Hybrid Development Strategy
5.13.3 Kunpeng DHT
5.13.4 Kunpeng DHT Full-function Hybrid Configuration
5.13.5 48V BSG Micro Hybrid System 
5.13.6 Automatic Stop-Go Models  
5.13.7 48V Hybrid Models 

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