Global and Chinese Automakers’ Modular Platforms and Technology Planning Research Report, 2022
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Research on Automakers’ Platforms and Their Planning: the Strategic Layout Directions of 32 Automakers

At present, global automotive industry is in the midst of profound changes unseen in a century. This can be intensively demonstrated through energy, power system, E/E architecture, intelligence and connectivity, application scenarios, user experience, and more. In this context, major automakers are changing their strategic layout. They work hard on key areas from automotive manufacturing platforms, E/E architecture and software platforms to autonomous driving, intelligent cockpit and electrification, and attract consumers and satisfy their needs with differentiated products. 

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1. Automakers keep upgrading their modular platform architectures.

Modular platforms remain superior in increasing the universality of components and lowering R&D and production costs. At present, most automakers have their own modular platforms, or even multiple platforms. Modular architecture outperforms a modular platform. It is an extension and expansion of the platform concept. With higher universality of components and higher scalability, modular architecture is compatible with vehicles of differing classes and power types. Automakers therefore have started gradual transition from modular platform to modular architecture. 

Modular architecture favors higher productivity, lower procurement/manufacturing costs, and shorter R&D cycles. In current stage, the generalization rate of components in GAC Global Platform Modular Architecture (GPMA) surpass 60%, compared with 70% in Geely Sustainable Experience Architecture (SEA) and 70%-80% in Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA).

At present, automakers in China deploy modular architectures relatively early. Among them, BYD, Geely, Chery, and Changan Automobile have launched their own modular architectures. The modular architecture launches of foreign peers are concentrated in the period from 2024 to 2025.

Taking Volkswagen as an example, the company plans to eventually integrate its platforms into SSP, a scalable mechatronics platform architecture applicable to all Volkswagen’s brands and models. In the future, all brands and models at all levels under Volkswagen will be built on this super platform.

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2. EEA tends to be centralized.

Through the lens of E/E architecture planning, most automakers plan to deploy centralized vehicle E/E architectures:
GAC projects installation of the centralized E/E architecture "Protoss" in 2023 Aion high-end models;
Hongqi plans launch of its quasi-central architecture FEEA3.0 in 2023;
Great Wall Motor plans to introduce its central computing architecture GEEP 5.0 in 2024;
Changan Automobile is expected to complete the development of its domain centralized architecture in 2025.

For example, GAC has upgraded its E/E architecture in all aspects and has developed the Protoss E/E Architecture, its new vehicle-cloud integrated E/E architecture that enables centralized computing and is about to come out in 2023 at the earliest. This architecture consists of three core computer groups, i.e., central computer, intelligent driving computer and infotainment computer, and four zonal controllers. The intelligent driving domain carries Huawei Ascend 610, a 400TOPS high-performance chip.

3. Automakers transform from independent software platform developers to software service providers.

As autonomous driving and intelligent connectivity boom, large automakers have set off a new round of “software-defined vehicle”-centric transformation and upgrading. Some transform themselves to software service providers by way of establishing software divisions/subsidiaries, independently developing operating systems (OS), and building software platforms.

Compared with the turnkey model in which Tier-1 suppliers take full charge in conventional vehicle supply chain, auto brands now take more active part. Joint R&D and flat cooperation gradually blur the boundaries of the supply chain ecosystem, and also diversifies the needs for business models. Modular services thus need providing to meet the individual needs of auto brands with differentiated configurations for different vehicle models. For example, Bosch adopts hardware modularization + middleware layer generalization + software individualization model and adjusts parameters to quickly address the needs of different functions.

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Volkswagen is a typical automaker that develops software on its own. In 2019, Volkswagen established a software division and planned to boost the in-house share of car software development from less than 10% to at least 60% in the five years to come. In 2021, Volkswagen changed the software division into CARIAD, a joint-stock company which will be responsible for independently developing the automotive operating system VW.OS and creating the software platform E3. In April 2022, CARIAD announced its China strategy. Its Chinese subsidiary was then established.

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In addition to Volkswagen, GM, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, SAIC and the like have also begun to self-develop operating systems and deploy their own software platforms, aiming to transform from an automaker to a software service provider. Toyota, which recently acquired the automotive operating system provider Renovo Motors, plans to roll out its own operating system, Arene, in 2025.

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4. L3 automated driving of OEMs comes into service.

The mainstream automakers deploy autonomous driving in the following ways:
? Investing in acquiring autonomous driving startups
? Partnering with big tech firms
? Cooperating with other OEMs
? Self-developing, or combining the above ways

On this basis, these automakers have also introduced their own autonomous driving assistance systems, including Volkswagen IQ.Drive, Toyota Advanced Drive, Mercedes-Benz Drive Pilot, Geely G-Pilot, and GAC ADiGO. Among them, Mercedes-Benz is the world’s first automotive company to meet the United Nations regulation UN-R157. Mercedes-Benz marketed its L3 automated driving system Drive Pilot in Germany in May 2022, and announced that it will be responsible for accidents caused by the system when activated.

Sensor configuration of Mercedes-Benz Drive Pilot:
? 1 LiDAR
? 1 long-range radar
? 4 short-range radars
? 1 stereo camera
? 1 rear view camera
? 1 in-vehicle driver monitoring camera
? 1 differential GPS
Sensor configuration of automated parking:
? 4 surround view cameras
? 12 ultrasonic sensors

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5. Intelligent cockpit interconnection platforms connect vehicles, people and everything, playing a more important role.

As the Internet thrives, major automakers show much enthusiasm for intelligent cockpits. Almost all of them have rolled out different intelligent cockpit interconnection platforms as selling points, in a bid to attract consumers. Examples include BMW iDrive and Mercedes-Benz MBUX, BYD DiLink and Geely GKUI.

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1 Summary of Automakers’ Platforms and Technology Planning
1.1 Status Quo of Strategic Layout of Automakers 
1.1.1 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Foreign Automakers (1)
1.1.2 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Foreign Automakers (2)
1.1.3 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Foreign Automakers (3)
1.1.4 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Chinese Automakers (1)
1.1.5 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Chinese Automakers (2)
1.1.6 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Chinese Automakers (3)
1.1.7 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Emerging Carmakers (1)
1.1.8 Comparison of Strategic Planning between Emerging Carmakers (2)
1.2 Modular Platform Layout of Automakers
1.2.1 Definition of Automotive Modular Platform
1.2.2 Comparison of Advantages and Disadvantages between Automotive Modular Platforms
1.2.3 Status Quo of Modular Platforms of Automakers 
1.2.4 Modular Platform is Being Upgraded to Modular Architecture
1.2.5 Comparison of Modular Architectures between Automakers (1)
1.2.6 Comparison of Modular Architectures between Automakers (2)
1.2.7 Business Models Derived from Modular Platforms
1.2.8 Modular Platforms Evolve Towards Skateboard Chassis
1.3 E/E Architecture Layout of Automakers 
1.3.1 E/E Architecture Layout of Traditional Automakers
1.3.2 E/E Architecture Layout of Emerging Carmakers
1.3.3 Comparison of E/E Architectures between Main OEMs (1)
1.3.4 Comparison of E/E Architectures between Main OEMs (2)
1.3.5 Comparison of E/E Architectures between Main OEMs (3)
1.3.6 Comparison of E/E Architectures between Main OEMs (4)
1.4 Software Platform Layout of Automakers
1.4.1 Automakers Self-develop OS Ecosystem 
1.4.2 Software Platform Layout of Major Automakers
1.4.3 Software Layout of Major Automakers 
1.5 Autonomous Driving Layout of Automakers 
1.5.1 Status Quo of Autonomous Driving Layout of Automakers 
1.5.2 Autonomous Driving Layout of Foreign Automakers
1.5.3 Autonomous Driving Layout of Chinese Automakers (1)
1.5.4 Autonomous Driving Layout of Chinese Automakers (2)
1.5.5 Comparison of Autonomous Driving Systems/Vehicle Model Hardware Configurations between Automakers (1)
1.5.6 Comparison of Autonomous Driving Systems/Vehicle Model Hardware Configurations between Automakers (2)
1.6 Intelligent Cockpit Layout of Automakers
1.6.1 Intelligent Cockpit Layout of Major Automakers (1)
1.6.2 Intelligent Cockpit Layout of Major Automakers (2)
1.6.3 Intelligent Cockpit Layout of Major Automakers (3)
1.7 Electrification Layout of Automakers
1.7.1 Electrification Layout of Major Automakers (1)
1.7.2 Electrification Layout of Major Automakers (2)

2 Modular Platforms and Technology Planning of Foreign Automakers
2.1 Volkswagen 
2.1.1 Modular Platform: MQB Platform
2.1.1 Modular Platform: Advantages of MQB Platform
2.1.1 Modular Platform: MQB Platform Application Case - Golf VII
2.1.1 Modular Platform: BEV Platform
2.1.1 Modular Platform: MEB Platform
2.1.1 Modular Platform: MEB Platform Application Case 
2.1.1 Modular Platform: MEB Platform Development History & PPE Platform
2.1.1 Modular Platform: Other Modular Platforms
2.1.1 Modular Platform: Planning of Modular Platform-based Vehicle Models 
2.1.1 Modular Platform: SSP Architecture
2.1.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
2.1.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): MEB Platform
2.1.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): E3 Platform
2.1.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Partners
2.1.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): VW.OS
2.1.4 Autonomous Driving: Overall Layout
2.1.4 Autonomous Driving: IQ.Drive Intelligent Driving Assistance System
2.1.4 Autonomous Driving: 6V5R1D, MEB-based Intelligent Driving Solution with Chinese Characteristics 
2.1.4 Autonomous Driving: Two-Step Strategy
2.1.4 Autonomous Driving: Cooperation with Huawei
2.1.5 Intelligent Cockpit: All-New Intelligent Vehicle Connection System
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: Overall Strategic Planning
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: NEW AUTO Strategic Planning
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: Cells
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: Battery System
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: Charging System
2.1.6 Electrification Platform: High Voltage Electric Drive System
2.2 Toyota 
2.2.1 Modular Platform: TNGA 
2.2.1 Modular Platform: Key Features of TNGA 
2.2.1 Modular Platform: Main TNGA-based Vehicle Models 
2.2.1 Modular Platform: e-TNGA
2.2.1 Modular Platform: e-TNGA Platform Application Cases
2.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
2.2.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Arene Operating System
2.2.4 Autonomous Driving: Development History
2.2.4 Autonomous Driving: Subsidiary Woven Planet
2.2.4 Autonomous Driving: Advanced Drive 
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Overall Strategic Planning
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Development Plan
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Solid State Batteries
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Cost Reduction Strategy
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Strategy 2030
2.2.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Supply Chain Plan
2.3 Renault-Nissan Alliance
2.3.1 Renault-Nissan Modular Platform: CMF Platform
2.3.1 Renault-Nissan Modular Platform: CMF EV Platform
2.3.1 Renault-Nissan Modular Platform: CMF BEV Platform
2.3.2 Renault Electrification Platform: Overall Strategic Planning
2.3.2 Renault Electrification Platform: Battery Standardization and Modularization 
2.3.2 Renault Electrification Platform: Battery Cost Reduction Path
2.3.2 Renault Electrification Platform: Battery Full Life Cycle
2.3.2 Renault Electrification Platform: Electric Drive – “Three-Electric In One” Drives In-house Development 
2.4 BMW 
2.4.1 Modular Platform: UKL Platform
2.4.1 Modular Platform: CLAR Platform
2.4.1 Modular Platform: CLAR Platform Application Cases
2.4.1 Modular Platform: Neue Klasse Architecture
2.4.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
2.4.3 Autonomous Driving: Overall Layout
2.4.3 Autonomous Driving: System Architecture
2.4.3 Autonomous Driving: L2+ Assistance System PRO
2.4.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Overall Layout 
2.4.4 Intelligent Cockpit: MGU Head Unit 
2.4.4 Intelligent Cockpit: iDrive Human-Computer Interaction System
2.4.5 Electrification Platform: FAAR and CLAR Architectures
2.4.5 Electrification Platform: Vehicle Model Planning
2.4.5 Electrification Platform: eDrive System
2.4.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Technology
2.5 Mercedes-Benz
2.5.1 Modular Platform: BEV Platform
2.5.1 Other Modular Platforms
2.5.1 Modular Platform: MMA Architecture
2.5.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): STAR 3
2.5.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): MB.OS
2.5.4 Autonomous Driving: Overall Planning 
2.5.4 Autonomous Driving: Drive Pilot
2.5.5 Intelligent Cockpit: MBUX System
2.5.6 Electrification Platform: Overall Strategy
2.5.6 Electrification Platform: BEV Platform Architecture
2.5.6 Electrification Platform: Power Batteries
2.5.6 Electrification Platform: Electric Drive System
2.5.6 Electrification Platform: Charging Technology
2.6 Hyundai 
2.6.1 Modular Platform: E-GMP Platform
2.6.1 Modular Platform: E-GMP Platform Application Cases
2.6.1 Modular Platform: i-GMP Platform
2.6.1 Modular Platform: IMA Architecture
2.6.1 Modular Platform: IMA Architecture - Standardized Batteries
2.6.1 Modular Platform: IMA Architecture - Battery and Electric Drive System
2.6.2 Autonomous Driving: Overall Strategic Planning
2.6.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): ccOS
2.6.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Software Services Strategy
2.6.4 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2025
2.6.4 Electrification Platform: Mid-to-long-term Strategy for EVs
2.6.4 Electrification Platform: Electrification Strategy 2030
2.7 GM
2.7.1 Modular Platform: BEV3 Platform
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform: System Design
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform: Powertrain
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform: Battery Technology
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform: Battery Management System
2.7.1 Modular Platform: Ultium Platform: Security Protection
2.7.1 Modular Platform: VSS Architecture
2.7.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
2.7.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Global B Architecture
2.7.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Ultifi Software Platform
2.7.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Software Electronic Architecture
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Overall Layout
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: ADAS Technology Evolution Route
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Subsidiary Cruise
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Technical Solutions of Cruise
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Software and Chips of Cruise
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Autonomous Driving Perception Algorithms of Cruise
2.7.4 Autonomous Driving: Ultra Cruise 
2.7.5 Intelligent Cockpit: New-generation Virtual Cockpit System (VCS)
2.7.6 Electrification Platform: Overall Development Strategy
2.7.6 Electrification Platform: Ultium Battery
2.8 Stellantis
2.8.1 Modular Platform
2.8.1 Modular Platform: EV Platform
2.8.1 Modular Platform: STLA Architecture
2.8.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): STLA Brain Architecture
2.8.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Five Business Directions
2.8.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Technology Partners
2.8.4 Electrification Platform: Overall Layout
2.8.4 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2030
2.8.4 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2030: Foundation
2.8.4 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2030: Foothold
2.8.4 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2030: Technology Strategy
2.9 Ford
2.9.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Blue Oval Intelligence
2.9.2 Autonomous Driving: Overall Layout
2.9.2 Autonomous Driving: Development History
2.9.2 Autonomous Driving: Blue Cruise/Co-Pilot 360 
2.9.3 Electrification Platform: Overall Strategy
2.9.3 Electrification Platform: Battery Solutions
2.9.3 Electrification Platform: Lower Battery Pack Cost 
2.9.3 Electrification Platform: Modular EV Platform
2.9.3 Electrification Platform: European Electrification Strategy
2.9.4 Mobility Services: Ford Pro
2.9.4 Mobility Services: Ford Live
2.10 KIA
2.10.1 Electrification Platform: Strategy 2030
2.10.2 Electrification Platform: Vehicle Model Planning
2.10.2 Electrification Platform: Sales Planning
2.10.2 Electrification Platform: Battery Technology
2.10.2 Electrification Platform: Charging Facilities
2.10.3 Passenger Car Technology Strategy 
2.10.3 Passenger Car Technology Strategy: Intelligent Connectivity
2.10.3 Passenger Car Technology Strategy: Autonomous Driving
2.10.4 Commercial Vehicle Technology Strategy
2.10.4 Commercial Vehicle Technology Strategy: Product Line Planning
2.10.4 Commercial Vehicle Technology Strategy: Variant PBV
2.10.4 Commercial Vehicle Technology Strategy: Dedicated PBV
2.10.4 Commercial Vehicle Technology Strategy: PBV Services
2.10.5 Flying Car Technology Strategy
2.11 Volvo
2.11.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
2.11.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Zonal Architecture
2.11.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): New E/E Architecture Planning
2.11.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): SPA2 E/E Architecture
2.11.2 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): SOA Software for SPA2 E/E Architecture
2.11.2 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): VolvoCars.OS 
2.11.3 Autonomous Driving: L3 Ride Pilot
2.11.4 Electrification: 10-Year Mid-Term Plan

3 Modular Platforms and Technology Planning of Chinese Automakers
3.1 Geely
3.1.1 Smart Geely 2025 Strategy
3.1.2 "Nine Great Dragon Bay Actions"
3.1.2 "Nine Great Dragon Bay Actions": New Energy Products Planning
3.1.2 "Nine Great Dragon Bay Actions": To Launch A Battery Swap Mobility Brand
3.1.3 "4.2.3" Strategy for Commercial Vehicles
3.1.4 Modular Platform: Sustainable Experience Architecture (SEA) 
3.1.4 Modular Platform: Key Features of SEA
3.1.4 Modular Platform: SEA Application Cases
3.1.4 Modular Platform: Compact Modular Architecture (CMA) 
3.1.4 Modular Platform: CMA Supermatrix
3.1.4 Modular Platform: CMA Supermatrix Application Cases
3.1.4 Modular Platform: Pure Electric Modular Architecture (PMA)
3.1.4 Modular Platform: Other Modular Platforms
3.1.5 E/E Architecture (EEA): GEEA 3.0
3.1.6 Autonomous Driving: Development History
3.1.6 Autonomous Driving: G-Pilot Technology Roadmap
3.1.7 Intelligent Cockpit: Overall Layout
3.1.7 Intelligent Cockpit: ZEEKR OS Intelligent Cockpit
3.1.8 Electrification Platform: “Three-Electric” Technology Layout
3.1.8 Electrification Platform: Three-speed Hybrid Transmission DHT Pro
3.2 GAC
3.2.1 Modular Platform: Global Platform Modular Architecture (GPMA) 
3.2.1 Modular Platform: GAC Electric Platform (GEP)
3.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Evolution Route
3.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): "Protoss" E/E Architecture
3.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Summary of E/E Architecture Schemes
3.2.3 Autonomous Driving: Development History
3.2.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Overall Layout
3.2.4 Intelligent Cockpit: GIEC Intelligent Cockpit
3.2.4 Intelligent Cockpit: ADiGO
3.2.4 Intelligent Cockpit: ADiGO 4.0
3.2.5 Electrification Platform: “Mega Waves Hybrid”
3.2.5 Electrification Platform: "GLASS Green & Clean Program"
3.3 Great Wall Motor 
3.3.1 Modular Platform: L.E.M.O.N. 
3.3.1 Modular Platform: TANK
3.3.1 Modular Platform: Smart Chassis-by-wire
3.3.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Evolution Route
3.3.2 E/E Architecture: GEEP 4.0 
3.3.2 Summary of E/E Architecture Schemes
3.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Development History
3.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Coffee Smart Driving 
3.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Layout
3.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Subsidiary HAOMO.AI
3.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Computing Platform
3.3.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Layout
3.3.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Coffee Intelligent Cockpit System
3.3.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Intelligent Cockpit Layout and Planning of Nobo Automotive Technologies 
3.3.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Intelligent Cockpit Domain Layout and Planning of Nobo Automotive Technologies 
3.3.5 Electrification: Dayu Battery Technology
3.4 Chery
3.4.1 Modular Platform: T1X & M1X
3.4.1 Modular Platform: @LIFE Platform
3.4.1 Modular Platform: M3X Mars Architecture PRO
3.4.1 Modular Platform: Platform Planning
3.4.2 Autonomous Driving: Development History
3.4.3 Intelligent Cockpit: Solutions
3.4.3 Intelligent Cockpit: i-Connect@Lion System Planning
3.5 Changan Automobile
3.5.1 New Strategy: "Changan Deep Blue"
3.5.2 Intelligent strategy: Dubhe Strategy 
3.5.3 Modular Platform: Ark Architecture
3.5.3 Modular Platform: Other Modular Platforms
3.5.3 Modular Platform: EPA1 Electric Drive Platform
3.5.3 Modular Platform: Blue Whale NE Power Platform
3.5.4 E/E Architecture (EEA): Evolution Route
3.5.4 E/E Architecture (EEA): EPA1 E/E Architecture
3.5.4 E/E Architecture (EEA): CIIA 2.0 
3.5.5 Autonomous Driving: Development History
3.5.5 Autonomous Driving: Development Planning
3.5.5 Autonomous Driving: APA Parking Route 
3.5.6 Intelligent Cockpit: Overall Layout
3.5.6 Intelligent Cockpit: UIN-T Intelligent Cockpit Platform
3.5.7 Electrification Platform: EPA1 Electric Drive Platform: Overall Efficiency 
3.5.7 Electrification Platform: EPA1 Electric Drive Platform:  Electric Drive System
3.6 BYD
3.6.1 Modular Platform: e Platform
3.6.1 Modular Platform: e Platform 3.0
3.6.1 Modular Platform: BYD New Architecture (BNA)
3.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA)
3.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Integrated Body Controller
3.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Summary of Solutions
3.6.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): BYD OS
3.6.4 Autonomous Driving: Overall Layout
3.6.4 Autonomous Driving: DiPilot Intelligent Driving Assistance System
3.6.5 Intelligent Cockpit: Overall Architecture
3.6.5 Intelligent Cockpit: DiLink System
3.6.5 Intelligent Cockpit: Function Iteration of DiLink System 
3.6.6 Electrification Platform: 8-in-1 Electric Drive Assembly
3.7 BAIC
3.7.1 Modular Platform: Beijing Modular Functional Architecture (BMFA)
3.7.1 Modular Platform: BE22
3.7.2 Intelligent Cockpit
3.7.3 Electrification: Three-Electric Technology
3.8 FAW
3.8.1 FAW Bestune Modular Platform: FAW Modular Architecture (FMA) 
3.8.1 FAW Bestune Modular Platform: FMA Application Cases
3.8.2 FAW Hongqi E/E Architecture (EEA): E/E Architecture  
3.8.2 FAW E/E Architecture (EEA): Summary of E/E Architecture Schemes
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: Layout of Core Intelligent Cockpit Businesses
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: Intelligent Cockpit Platform
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: HC3.0 Intelligent Cockpit
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: Intelligent Cockpit Application Cases 
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: Smile Intelligent Cockpit
3.8.3 FAW Hongqi Intelligent Cockpit: Future Intelligent Cockpit Layout
3.8.4 FAW Hongqi Autonomous Driving: Autonomous Driving Layout
3.9 SAIC
3.9.1 Modular Platform: Development History
3.9.1 Modular Platform: SAIC Intelligence Global Modular Architecture (SIGMA) 
3.9.2 E/E Architecture (EEA)
3.9.3 “Galaxy” Full Stack Solution for Smart Cars
3.9.4 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Z-ONE’s SOA
3.9.5 Autonomous Driving
3.9.6 Intelligent Cockpit: Development Planning
3.9.6 Intelligent Cockpit: R-TECH High Energy Intelligent Body
3.9.7 Electrification Platform: Electric Drive System Platform
3.9.7 Electrification Platform: All-in-one Electric Drive Assembly

4 Modular Platforms and Technology Planning of Emerging Carmakers
4.1 Tesla
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Architecture Evolution
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Model 3 EEA
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Features of Model 3 EEA 
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Model X EEA
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Model S EEA 
4.1.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Summary of Architectural Schemes 
4.1.2 Intelligent Cockpit: Hardware Iteration
4.1.2 Intelligent Cockpit: MCU
4.1.3 Autonomous Driving: Technology Development Path
4.1.3 Autonomous Driving: System Iteration
4.1.4 Electrification Platform: Battery System
4.2 Xpeng Motors
4.2.1 Modular Platform
4.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
4.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): EE1.0-EE3.0 Evolution
4.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): X-EEA 3.0
4.2.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Summary of Architecture Schemes 
4.2.3 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Software Architecture Evolves Towards SOA Service
4.2.4 Autonomous Driving: Technology Roadmap
4.2.4 Autonomous Driving: XPILOT Intelligent Driving Assistance System
4.2.4 Autonomous Driving: XPILOT Autonomous Driving Software Architecture
4.2.4 Autonomous Driving: XPU2.5-XPU5.0 Domain Controller Hardware Architecture Upgrade
4.2.5 Intelligent Cockpit: Xmart OS Evolution
4.2.5 Intelligent Cockpit: Xmart OS 2.0
4.3 NIO
4.3.1 NP BEV Platform
4.3.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Evolution History
4.3.3 Autonomous Driving: Evolution Path
4.3.3 Autonomous Driving: NIO Autonomous Driving (NAD) 
4.3.4 Intelligent Cockpit: ET7 Intelligent Cockpit
4.4 Li Auto
4.4.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Iteration History
4.4.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Planning
4.4.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Communication Support
4.4.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Zonal Controllers
4.4.2 Software Defined Vehicle (SDV): Self-developed OS 
4.4.3 Autonomous Driving: Development Path
4.4.3 Autonomous Driving: AD Max Intelligent Driving System
4.4.4 Intelligent Cockpit
4.5 NETA Auto
4.5.1 Automotive Products Planning
4.5.2 Modular Platform: Shanhai Platform
4.5.3 E/E Architecture (EEA)
4.5.4 Autonomous Driving: TA PILOT Intelligent Driving System
4.5.4 Autonomous Driving: Core Configuration of TA PILOT 4.0 
4.5.4 Autonomous Driving: Self-developed Full-stack Solutions
4.5.5 Intelligent Cockpit: PIOVT 2.0
4.5.5 Intelligent Cockpit: Cockpit Domain Controllers
4.6 ENOVATE 
4.6.1 Modular Platform: iMA Digital Architecture
4.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA)
4.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Power Domain Control Products
4.6.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): Upgrade Route of Power Domain Control Products 
4.6.3 Intelligent Cockpit: 5+X Intelligent Cockpit
4.7 Weltmeister
4.7.1 Released the New Technology Strategy IdeaL4
4.7.2 Intelligent Cockpit: WMConnect Intelligent Digital Cockpit
4.7.3 Autonomous Driving: Realized the Implementation of L4 Autonomous Driving
4.8 Leapmotor
4.8.1 R&D Strength
4.8.2 Modular Platform
4.8.3 Autonomous Driving: Leapmotor Pilot 
4.8.4 Intelligent Cockpit: Leapmotor OS 
4.8.5 Electrification Platform: Leapmotor Power
4.8.5 Electrification Platform: Battery Technology
4.8.5 Electrification Platform: Electric Drive System
4.9 Voyah 
4.9.1 Modular Platform: Electric Smart Secure Architecture (ESSA) 
4.9.2 E/E Architecture (EEA): SOA 
4.9.3 Autonomous Driving
4.9.4 Intelligent Cockpit 
4.9.5 Electrification: Battery System Technology
4.9.5 Electrification: Powertrain
4.9.5 Electrification: Powertrain - BEV Version
4.9.5 Electrification: Powertrain - EREV Version
4.9.6 Recent Dynamics 
4.10 IM Motors 
4.10.1 E/E Architecture (EEA): Overall Planning
4.10.2 Intelligent Cockpit
4.11 ARCFOX
4.11.1 Modular Platform: BE21
4.11.1 Modular Platform: IMC Intelligent Module Architecture
4.11.1 Modular Platform: IMC Architecture Application Cases
4.11.2 E/E Architecture (EEA)
4.11.3 Autonomous Driving Layout
4.12 Foxconn
4.12.1 MIH Alliance
4.12.2 MIH Platform
4.12.3 Software Layout
 

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