China Autonomous Heavy Truck Industry Report, 2022
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Autonomous heavy truck research: entering operation and pre-installed mass production stage, dimension reduction and cost decrease are the industry solution

ResearchInChina released "China Autonomous Heavy Truck Industry Report, 2022", which combs through and summarizes R&D testing, product implementation and commercial operation of autonomous heavy trucks of current domestic leading autonomous driving solution providers and heavy truck OEMs.

AD heavy truck solution providers successively enter the actual operation and pre-installed mass production stage

ResearchInChina also released a research report on autonomous heavy trucks in August 2021. At that time, most autonomous heavy truck-related companies were busy in pulling investment, looking for logistics and OEMs while promoting road testing and technology iterations. On the one hand, the solution needs huge funds to maintain technology R&D and expand scale of test vehicles; on the other hand, they also expect their own technology to be implemented in OEMs and logistics fleets, and to really run on the road through a scaled fleet. By August 2022, the solution providers and OEMs are more advanced in autonomous/ takeover-free testing and commercial operations, and the focus gradually shifts from R&D testing to actual operations and pre-installed mass production.

Autonomous/ takeover-free testing
Starting in June 2021, the AD heavy truck solution providers gradually attempt to conduct autonomous or takeover-free public road testing for true real field autonomous/takeover-free technology validation. By August 2022, PlusAI, TuSimple,, etc. have all completed autonomous/takeover-free tests on public roads.

AD TRUCK 1_副本.png

Among autonomous/takeover-free autonomous driving tests in the table above, TuSimple and are the most eye-catching.
According to the official statement, the fully autonomous test of TuSimple autonomous heavy truck on the public road took place at night, with no safety officers on duty or any human intervention throughout. The test was 80 miles long, including scenarios such as traffic signals, on and off ramps, emergency lane change vehicles and lane changes, and took 1 hour and 20 minutes. The entire test was conducted in close cooperation with Arizona Department of Transportation and law enforcement, with three safety and security vehicles in front of and behind the test vehicle to ensure safety of fully autonomous test operation.

AD TRUCK 2_副本.png

In April 2022, completed 6 hours of continuous, takeover-free autonomous driving tests in China's highway scenarios, going from night to day, through long tunnels, experiencing heavy rain and fog, and encountering real scenarios such as occupying accident cars, low-speed cars and special-shaped trailers. According to the official statement, in 6 hours, the driving distance exceeded 405 km, experienced 5 different highways and 13 tunnels, executed 4,235 turns, 1,052 accelerations/brakes, and tracked and recognized 4,806 dynamic traffic objects.

AD TRUCK 3_副本.png

Commercial operations
With the deepening of cooperation with logistics providers, solution providers have begun to show their strengths in actual road freight, allowing autonomous heavy trucks to earn freight. Trunk Technology and have obtained road transport operation permits and built their own fleets for transportation. Public data shows that the accumulated mileage of road transportation by TuSimple, Inceptio Technology, Trunk Technology and other solution providers have reached million-kilometer level, of which it has reached the most leading 7 million miles (about 11 million kilometers) during 2020-2022H1.

AD TRUCK 4_副本.png

Pre-installed mass production
For capital, solution providers or logistics providers, what they are most looking forward to is the mass production and implementation of autonomous heavy trucks. Thus, the vehicle function, technical certification, vehicle sales and after-sales service and other related responsible parties can carry out road transport business activities.

The US RAND has estimated that an autonomous driving system needs to be validated for at least 11 billion miles (17-18 billion km) to reach mass production conditions. With a heavy truck driving 2000km in 24 hours, it would take 100 heavy trucks to drive about 240 years without stopping.

To obtain enormous real road test mileage, the only solution is pre-installed mass production and scaling to the market. At this stage, except for TuSimple, which insists on mass production of L4 heavy trucks, most solution providers are targeting L3 heavy trucks for mass production. They hoped that with mass production of L3 heavy trucks, autonomous driving system will run in large quantities on actual roads, thus obtaining massive road data, feeding back autonomous driving system and eventually realizing L4 autonomous driving.

PlusAI and Inceptio Technology, which are at the forefront of mass production, have each cooperated with heavy truck OEMs to produce L3 heavy trucks in late 2021 and have achieved some delivery results. In August 2022, PlusAI delivered five L3 FAW Jiefang J7 to its partner Rokin Logistics (with a total order of 100 vehicles, and the remaining 95 vehicles will be delivered within two years).

AD TRUCK 5_副本.png

AD TRUCK 6_副本.png

Big changes in autonomous heavy truck market
Emerging forces exist in passenger vehicle market, as well as in heavy truck market. Solution providers believe that the current traditional heavy truck manufacturers have many problems such as slow technical follow-up and unharmonious cooperation, which directly drag down the speed of mass production of autonomous heavy trucks. Therefore, in order to achieve better adaptation of software and hardware for autonomous driving and promote rapid implementation of autonomous heavy trucks, emerging forces such as DeepWay and Xingxing Technology have been established one after another. The biggest feature of heavy truck emerging forces is that they are built for autonomous driving, including fully redundant by-wire chassis, powertrain and cabin designed to meet needs of L4 autonomous driving.

Dynamics of some heavy truck emerging forces:
20120114.gifIn September 2021, DeepWay released concept vehicle DeepWay-Xingtu, which is expected to be delivered in mass production in 2023.
20120114.gifIn April 2022, Xingxing Technology released Apebot I, an L4 autonomous pure electric van-type heavy truck for logistics, with mass production expected in 2023Q1.
20120114.gifIn June 2022, Hydron, a hydrogen-fueled heavy truck company founded by TuSimple co-founder Chen Mo, is expected to deliver its first-generation products in 2024Q3.

Some time ago, Ministry of Transport released "Autonomous Vehicle Transport Safety Service Guide (trial)" (draft for comment), proposing that "under the premise of ensuring transport safety, encourage the use of autonomous vehicles to engage in road general cargo transportation business activities in scenarios such as point-to-point trunk road transportation and relatively closed roads." The document will provide greater space for autonomous heavy truck road transport services, facilitate technical verification testing of autonomous heavy trucks, and directly promote them from test vehicles to mass production vehicles.

Dimension reduction for L2+/L3 pre-installed mass production, becoming a practical choice for autonomous heavy truck solution providers

Solution providers all target long-term goal of L4/L5 autonomous driving, while most enterprises adopt a progressive development strategy, such as PlusAI, Inceptio Technology, Hong Jing Drive, etc. They reduce dimension of L4 solutions accumulated and verified over the years, enter the vehicle R&D and mass production process as Tier 1 or Tier 0.5, and enable heavy truck OEMs to jointly mass produce L2+/L3 models by packaging software and hardware solutions. For example:

20120114.gifBased on the R&D of L4 full-stack autonomous driving technology, PlusAI joined forces with FAW Jiefang to create a supervised autonomous driving heavy truck (L2 +/L3), and at the same time used the commercialization of mass-produced autonomous heavy trucks to carry out technical iterations.

20120114.gifInceptio Technology cooperated with Dongfeng Commercial Vehicles and Sinotruk to achieve mass production of L3 autonomous trucks, and a total of more than 200 vehicles of the two mass-produced models were rolled off the production line (as of August 2022).

For autonomous heavy truck solution providers, mass production is the most practical choice in the near future. On the one hand, reducing product purchase/modification costs can also obtain certain income; on the other hand, it can realize data closed loop through large-scale operation of mass production vehicles and drive technology iteration.

1 Overview of Autonomous Heavy Truck Industry
1.1 Overview of Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.1.1 Classification of Trucks 
1.1.2 Necessity of Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.1.3 Advantages of Automated Driving Technology for Autonomous Heavy Trucks
1.1.4 Levels of Autonomous Heavy Trucks
1.1.5 Functional Characteristics of Autonomous Heavy Trucks at Different Levels 

1.2 Truck Autonomous Driving Technologies 
1.2.1 Typical Application Scenarios and Technologies of Autonomous Truck
1.2.2 Typical Application Scenarios and Technical Solutions of Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.2.3 Key Technologies Needed by Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.2.4 Reference Architecture of Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.2.5 Evolution Route of Autonomous Heavy Truck

1.3 Truck Platooning
1.3.1 Overview of Truck Platooning
1.3.2 Development Course of Truck Platooning Technology 
1.3.3 Key Components of Truck Platooning and Their Functions
1.3.4 System Architecture of Tuck Platooning Operation
1.3.5 Value of Truck Platooning
1.3.6 Truck Platooning Validation and Test in China

1.4 Regulations on Autonomous Heavy Truck
1.4.1 Related Policies on Autonomous Heavy Truck in China--National level
1.4.2 Related Policies on Autonomous Heavy Truck in China--Local level
1.4.3 Development Roadmap of Autonomous Truck in China

1.5 Challenges in Autonomous Truck and Ancillary Facilities
1.5.1 Challenges
1.5.2 Ancillary Facilities

2. Chinese Autonomous Heavy Truck Solution Providers  
2.1 TuSimple: Highway + Port 
2.1.1 Profile and Operation 
2.1.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics
2.1.3 Shareholding Structure (China) 
2.1.4 Intellectual Property 
2.1.5 Business Model 
 2.1.6 Autonomous Driving Technology 
 2.1.7 Autonomous Driving Models 
 2.1.8 Road test 
 2.1.9 Business Operations 
 2.1.10 Partners 

 2.2 PlusAI: Highway
 2.2.1 Profile and Financing 
 2.2.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics 
 2.2.3 Shareholding Structure (China) 
 2.2.4 Intellectual Property 
 2.2.5 Business Model 
 2.2.6 Autonomous Driving Roadmap
 2.2.7 Autonomous driving Scenario Landing and Product Delivery 
 2.2.8 Autonomous Driving Solutions 
 2.2.9 Autonomous Driving Models 
 2.2.10 Road test 
 2.2.11 Business Operations 
 2.2.12 Partners 

 2.3 Inceptio Technology:  Highway 
 2.3.1 Profile and Financing 
 2.3.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics 
 2.3.3 Shareholding Structure 
 2.3.4 Intellectual Property 
 2.3.5 Business Model 
 2.3.6 Autonomous Driving Technology 
 2.3.7 Autonomous Driving Models  
 2.3.8 Road test 
 2.3.9 Business Operations 
 2.3.10 Partners 

 2.4 Trunk Technology: Port + Highway 
 2.4.1 Profile and Financing  
 2.4.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics 
 2.4.3 Shareholding Structure 
 2.4.4 Core Team 
 2.4.5 Intellectual Property 
 2.4.6 Business Model 
 2.4.7 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout 
 2.4.8 Autonomous Driving Solutions 
 2.4.9 Autonomous Driving Models  
 2.4.10 Road test 
 2.4.11 Partners 

 2.5 Hong Jing Drive: Highway 
 2.5.1 Profile and Financing  
 2.5.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics 
 2.5.3 Shareholding Structure 
 2.5.4 Intellectual Property 
 2.5.5 Business Model 
 2.5.6 Development Planning 
 2.5.7 Autonomous driving Technology 
 2.5.8 Autonomous Driving Models 
 2.5.9 Business Operations 
 2.5.10 Partners 

 2.6.1 Profile and Financing
 2.6.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics 
 2.6.3 Shareholding Structure 
 2.6.4 Intellectual Property 
 2.6.5 Business Model 
 2.6.6 Autonomous Driving Models 
 2.6.7 Road test 
 2.6.8 Business Operations 
 2.6.9 Partners 

 2.7 Profile, Equity Structure, Financing  

 2.8 Summary of Domestic Solution Providers

3. Autonomous Heavy Truck Layout of Chinese OEMs 
3.1 Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle 
3.1.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.1.2 Development History of Autonomous Driving  
3.1.3 Autonomous Driving Technology Route 
3.1.4 Layout of Autonomous Driving Technology 
3.1.5 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout 
3.1.6 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.1.7 Autonomous Driving Testing and Operation 

3.2 FAW Group (FAW Jiefang/Zhito Technology) 
3.2.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.2.2 Development History of Autonomous Driving 
3.2.3 Layout of Autonomous Driving Technology 
3.2.4 Autonomous Driving Operation Mode and Business Planning 
3.2.5 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout 
3.2.6 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.2.7 Autonomous Driving Testing and Operation  
3.2.8 Autonomous Driving Dynamics 
3.2.9 Autonomous Driving Partners 

3.3.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.3.2 Development History of Autonomous Driving 
3.3.3 Autonomous driving R & D team 
3.3.4 Layout of Autonomous Driving Technology 
3.3.5 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout  
3.3.6 Autonomous Vehicle Products   
3.3.7 Autonomous Driving Testing   
3.3.8 Autonomous Driving Dynamics 

3.4 Shaanxi Automobile Group (Shaanxi Heavy Duty Truck/Dechuang Future) 
3.4.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.4.2 Development History of Autonomous Driving 
3.4.3 Layout of Autonomous Driving Technology 
3.4.4 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout 
3.4.5 Autonomous Driving Solutions 
3.4.6 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.4.7 Autonomous Driving Road Test and Operation 
3.4.8 Autonomous Driving Investment and Cooperation 

3.5 Foton Motor 
3.5.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.5.2 Development History and Cooperation Dynamics of Autonomous Driving 
3.5.3 Development Roadmap of Autonomous Driving 
3.5.4 Autonomous Driving Related Strategies
3.5.5 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout 
3.5.6 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.5.7 Autonomous Driving Testing and Operation 
3.6 Sinotruk 
3.6.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.6.2 Development History and Dynamics of Autonomous Driving  
3.6.3 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout  
3.6.4 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.6.5 Autonomous Driving Testing and Operation
3.7 BEIBEN Trucks 
3.7.1 Organization Chart of Autonomous Driving Business 
3.7.2 Layout of Autonomous Driving Technology 
3.7.3 Autonomous Driving Scenario Landing and Product Layout  
3.7.4 Autonomous Vehicle Products 
3.7.5 Autonomous Driving Road Test and Operation 
3.7.6 Autonomous Driving Investment and Cooperation 
3.8 Summary of Domestic OEMs

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