China ADAS Redundant System Strategy Research Report, 2023
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Redundant System Research: The Last Line of Safety for Intelligent Vehicles

Redundant design refers to a technology adding more than one set of functional channels, components or parts that enable the same function to places where a system or device plays a critical role in accomplishing a task, so as to ensure that the system or device can still work normally when a part fails, lowering failure probability and improving reliability.

As the level of driving assistance gets ever higher, human drivers are gradually being replaced by vehicle systems. To ensure that vehicle systems are always in operation, redundant systems are essential. In the future, redundant systems will become standard configurations for L3 and higher-level driving assistance. 

At present, the redundancy for ADAS ranges from perceptual positioning (environmental monitoring), controller (brain) and actuator (braking and steering) to communication (control over information transmission) and power supply (support for failure and degradation).

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Most of vehicle models (like Great Wall WEY Mocha, NIO ET Series, Li Auto L8/L7 Max and Volvo EX90) with ADAS functions such as NOH, NGP and NOP are equipped with fully redundant systems.

Coffee Intelligence, Great Wall Motor’s department for redundant systems, released six redundant systems in 2020, including perceptual redundancy, controller redundancy, architecture redundancy, power redundancy, brake redundancy and steering redundancy, which debuted on WEY Mocha in May 2021.

Perceptual redundancy adopts a multi-source heterogeneous sensor solution and L+R+V fusion. Controller redundancy uses dual controllers that run around the clock and back up each other. Brake redundancy uses Bosch’s ESP+iBooster combination. Steering redundancy applies the third-generation intelligent steering product developed by HYCET EPS System, an affiliate of Great Wall Motor, with dual winding motors, dual-motor position sensors, dual CPUs and dual controllers. Communication redundancy adopts dual communication architectures with three independent physical communication links supporting each other. Power redundancy applies the "double insurance" design consisting of dual power supply and dual circuits.

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In November 2022, Volvo released its flagship SUV - EX90, which is its first production model equipped with a safety redundant system and is expected to be available on the Chinese market in mid-2024.

The perceptual redundancy for this car adopts a LiDAR+radar+camera+ ultrasonic radar out-cabin solution, in which LiDAR is provided by Luminar, with a detection range of 250 meters. The in-cabin solution first introduces a driver understanding system (DUS) consisting of two in-vehicle cameras and a capacitive steering wheel. As for controller redundancy, there are two sets of parallel cooperative computing platforms packing NVIDIA DRIVE Orin and NVIDIA Xavier chips with the computing power up to 286 TOPS. In addition, the vehicle features fully redundant design in braking, steering, power supply and communication.

As intelligent vehicle architectures evolve, redundant systems are evolving as well. For example, JIDU ROBO-01, released by Jidu Auto in June 2022, carries Jidu Auto's self-developed high-level intelligent architecture - JET, which integrates the EEA and SOA operating system. Its backup solution for “cockpit domain + intelligent driving domain” fusion is based on Qualcomm 8295 with AI compute of 30 TOPS, supporting intelligent driving redundancy. When the intelligent driving fails in extreme cases, the intelligent cockpit can take over the vehicle and let it stop safely.

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Foreign suppliers offer comprehensive redundant designs. For example, the redundancy of Bosch’s perception module adopts the multi-sensor redundancy solution composed of ultrasonic sensors, radars, cameras and LiDAR. The positioning module redundancy adopts the redundant positioning solution constituted by absolute positioning based on satellite signals and relative positioning based on road features. The decision module is redundantly configured with two core computing units (i.e. domain controllers). The actuator redundancy design covers the steering system, brake system and engine management system. For the brake system redundancy, three solutions are used: iBooster+ESP, IPB+RBU and DPB+ESP. The steering system redundancy solution adopts a steer-by-wire system, which is equipped with two motors, two sets of power supply and two sets of windings.

Moreover, Chinese suppliers are working to deploy redundant systems. Examples include Jingwei Hirain Technologies that developed R-EPS, a fully redundant EPS for L2-L4 autonomous driving, in August 2022.

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1 Overview of Redundant Systems

1.1 Definition and Scope of Autonomous Driving Redundancy 
1.2 Perceptual Positioning Redundancy
1.3 Controller Redundancy
1.3.1 ECUs Develop towards Domain Controllers
1.3.2 Novel Controller Redundancy Modes Brought by Domain Centralization  
1.3.3 Chip Redundancy on Controllers
1.4 Actuator Redundancy - Braking
1.4.1 Current Mainstream Brake System - EHB
1.4.2 Mainstream Brake Redundancy Solution: Two-Box - ESC+eBooster
1.4.3 Emerging One-Box Brake Redundant Solution 
1.4.4 Future Development Direction of Brake Redundant System - EMB
1.4.5 Challenges in the Development of EMB
1.5 Actuator Redundancy - Steering
1.5.1 Electric Power Steering Develops toward Steering-by-Wire
1.5.2 SBW Redundant Design
1.6 Power Supply Redundancy
1.7 Architecture Redundancy
1.7.1 Automotive Ethernet Will Become the Backbone Network 
1.7.2 Redundant Design Based on Ethernet
1.8 Other Redundancy - Dual-motor Redundancy and In-cabin Driver Monitoring System Redundancy
1.9 Other Redundancy - Remote Takeover
1.9.1 Summary of Companies with Remote Takeover Technology 
1.10 Other Redundancy - CVIS
1.10.1 CVIS Industry Chain
1.10.2 Development of CVIS
1.11 Cooperation Mode of Two Components in Redundant Systems
1.12 Redundant System Deployment Strategy - More or Less?
1.13 Excessive Redundancy - Is the Chip Computing Power Excessively Redundant?

2 Redundant Systems of Suppliers
Summary of Redundant Systems of Foreign Suppliers
Summary of Redundant Systems of Domestic Suppliers

2.1 Bosch
2.1.1 Profile
2.1.2 Operation
2.1.3 Overall Redundant Design
2.1.4 Perception Module Redundant Design 
2.1.5 Positioning Module Redundant Design
2.1.6 Decision-making Module Redundant Design
2.1.7 Actuation Module Redundant Design - Braking
2.1.8 Actuation Module Redundant Design - Steering

2.2 Continental
2.2.1 Profile
2.2.2 MK Cx HAD Brake-by-Wire Redundant System
2.2.3 MK Cx Integrated Brake-by-Wire System
2.2.4 Comparison between MKC1 and MKC2

2.3 Aptiv
2.3.1 Profile
2.3.2 Perceptual Redundancy
2.3.3 Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) Redundancy 
2.3.4 Development of SVA
2.3.5 Power Supply Redundancy

2.4 Mobileye
2.4.1 Profile
2.4.2 True Redundancy Sensor Redundant System
2.4.3 True Redundancy Autonomous Driving Solution
2.4.4 Application of True Redundant System

2.5 Global Technology
2.5.1 Profile
2.5.2 Important Brake Redundant System - EPB
2.5.3 Brake Redundant System Solution - Two-Box 
2.5.4 Brake Redundant System Solution - One-box
2.5.5 Requirements of Brake Redundant Solutions for RBU
2.5.6 Comparison between One-box and Two-box
2.5.7 Future Brake Redundant Solutions
2.5.8 Steering Redundant System 
2.5.9 Chassis-by-Wire Domain Controller System Development Planning 

2.6 Bethel Automotive Safety Systems
2.6.1 Profile
2.6.2 Dual-controller EPB System and WCBS + Dual-controller EPB Redundant System 
2.6.3 Recent Cooperation and Customers

2.7 Jingwei Hirain
2.7.1 Profile
2.7.2 Steering Redundancy: R-EPS
2.7.3 Brake Redundancy: EWBS+ESP+EPB
2.7.4 Perceptual Redundancy and Functional Safety Solutions

2.8 Huawei
2.8.1 Intelligent Automotive Solution (IAS) Business Unit (BU) 
2.8.2 All-in-one Electric Drive System - Drive One
2.8.3 Brake Redundancy Patents

2.9 Tongyu Automotive
2.9.1 Profile
2.9.2 Brake Redundancy: EHB 

2.10 NASN
2.10.1 Profile
2.10.2 Products
2.10.3 Redundant Systems

2.11 Aceinna
2.11.1 Profile
2.11.2 Triple Redundant IMU

3 Redundant Systems of OEMs 
Summary of Redundant Systems of OEMs

3.1 Tesla
3.1.1 Profile
3.1.2 Autonomous Driving Route
3.1.3 Perceptual Redundancy
3.1.4 Chip Redundancy - HW 2.5 Chip Redundancy
3.1.5 Chip Redundancy - HW 3.0 Chip Redundancy
3.1.6 Chip Redundancy - HW 4.0 Chip Redundancy
3.1.7 Brake Redundancy
3.1.8 Steering Redundancy
3.1.9 Redundancy Patents  

3.2 NIO
3.2.1 Profile
3.2.2 Perceptual Redundancy and Positioning Redundancy
3.2.3 Controller Redundancy - Chips
3.2.4 Controller Redundancy - Chassis Domain Controllers
3.2.5 Future Development of Controller Redundancy
3.2.6 Dual-motor Redundancy

3.3 Great Wall
3.3.1 Profile
3.3.2 Perceptual Redundancy
3.3.3 Controller and Architecture Redundancy
3.3.4 Power Supply and Brake Redundancy 
3.3.5 Steering Redundancy
3.3.6 Redundant Systems Carried by Mecha Dragon

3.4 Jidu Auto
3.4.1 Profile
3.4.2 Redundant Design
3.4.3 Algorithm Redundancy and Solution Redundancy
3.4.4 Perceptual Redundancy and Architecture Redundancy
3.4.5 Computational Redundancy

3.5 Volvo
3.5.1 Profile
3.5.2 EX90 Redundant System

3.6 BMW
3.6.1 Profile
3.6.2 Perceptual Redundancy and Chip Redundancy
3.6.3 Dual Process Architectures

4 Redundant Systems of L4 Autonomous Driving Companies
Summary of Redundant Systems of L4 Autonomous Driving Companies

4.1 Baidu Apollo
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Redundant Design of Apollo Autonomous Vehicles (taking the latest model RT6 as an example)
4.1.3 Redundant System Analysis
4.1.4 Baidu Xinghe Architecture Platform

4.2 WeRide
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 WeRide One
4.2.3 WeRide One Redundant System Design

4.3 DeepRoute
4.3.1 Profile
4.3.2 Redundant Design

4.4 Waymo
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Redundant System Design
4.4.3 Truck Redundant Design

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