In-vehicle Communication and Network Interface Chip Industry Report, 2023
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In-vehicle communication chip research: automotive Ethernet is evolving towards high bandwidth and multiple ports, and the related chip market is growing rapidly.

By communication connection form, automotive communication falls into wireless communication and wired communication.

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An automotive electronic and electrical system uses a communication network as the carrier to connect electronic devices in a vehicle through wiring harnesses. As automotive E/E architecture evolves and in-vehicle functions become more complex, the increasing number of sensors in a vehicle leads to a surge in vehicle data. This requires very high vehicle real-time communication and data processing capabilities. The automotive Ethernet with high bandwidth, low delay and high reliability therefore will be more suitable for the long-term evolution of future E/E architecture and the high-speed in-vehicle communication.   

In the zonal architecture, the centralization of functions allows vehicles to pack far fewer ECUs. At this time, the central computing platform requires extremely high computing power of controllers, but relatively low computing power of zone controllers. To meet vehicle functional safety requirements, automotive Ethernet will become the data backbone link in the zonal architecture for the massive data transmission and migration between central and zone controllers, and the interaction between software and algorithms.   

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When Ethernet is used as the backbone network for future vehicles, the information interaction between zone controllers is enabled via Ethernet switches. At present, vehicle network communication chip vendors like Marvell, Broadcom and NXP have proposed the next-generation network architecture.

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For example, Aquantia (acquired by Marvell) predicts that the vehicle network architecture for future ADAS will have two central computing units (GPU/CPU), and connect all cameras and sensors via three switches, and Ethernet will be adopted for the entire vehicle connection. Each sensor needs to carry a PHY chip, and each switch node also needs to be configured with several PHY chips to input the data transmitted from sensors. Automotive Ethernet involves redundant backup design where hardware functions have a backup or are processed in parallel. Data from cameras and sensors are sent to a central computing unit, while the other central computing unit functions as a backup and take control of the vehicle in case that the former one fails.   

Automotive Ethernet is evolving towards high bandwidth and multiple ports.

Automotive Ethernet chips are led by physical layer (PHY) interface chip and Ethernet switch chip. PHY chips convert digital/analog signals based on the physical layer, and do not process data. Based on the data link layer, switch chips process transmitted data, covering fast forwarding and switching, filtering and classification of data packets. 
With the evolution of automotive E/E architecture, automotive Ethernet chips boast an increasing penetration. China’s automotive Ethernet chip market booms. For instance, automotive Ethernet PHY chips are largely used in central computing systems, ADAS and IVI systems. According to the average number of PHY chips per vehicle and the average price of PHY chips, China’s passenger car Ethernet PHY chip market is estimated to be worth RMB5.8 billion in 2022. In the future, as automotive Ethernet penetrates into other vehicle fields, a single vehicle will use more chips, and high-speed PHY chips take a rising share, which will offset the decline in the price of a single chip model. It is conceivable that China’s passenger car Ethernet PHY chip market will be valued at RMB21.87 billion in 2025.

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The evolution direction and speed of automotive E/E architecture have an impact on the development direction and speed of future automotive Ethernet. To meet the data transmission requirements (e.g., multi-functional interaction) in intelligent cockpits, automotive Ethernet will head in the direction of high bandwidth and multi-port configurations in the future.  

Autonomous driving promotes the development of 10G+ automotive Ethernet.

As autonomous driving technology matures, vehicles have ever higher requirements for real-time performance and sensibility of massive data transmission. In addition, the use of autonomous driving on roads will trigger demand for massive data storage, and the real-time storage of high-definition data from sensors such as cameras and LiDAR requires higher in-vehicle network bandwidth.
The higher the level of autonomous driving, the greater the demand for high-speed vehicle communication network. To meet the requirements of L3 and higher-level autonomous driving, 2.5/5/10G automotive Ethernet will be largely introduced into in-vehicle networks. L4/L5 autonomous vehicles will depend more heavily on automotive Ethernet, and many of them will introduce the 10G+ standard. Therefore, high-speed automotive Ethernet is essential for L3+ autonomous driving.    

Most mainstream or emerging automakers have laid out "centralized" E/E architecture in advance, and will apply it in production models during 2023-2025. 10G bandwidth is a must in realization of zonal architecture in 2025. In the 10G automotive Ethernet chip market, only Marvell and Broadcom can provide 10G+ Ethernet switches.  

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In June 2023, Marvell announced the Brightlane Q622x family of central Automotive Ethernet switches to support the zonal networking architectures of next-generation vehicles. Zonal switches aggregate traffic from devices located within a physical zone of a car like processors, sensors, actuators and storage systems, and is connected to the central computing switch via high-speed Ethernet for information exchange.

Brightlane Q622x switches are single-chip devices, including Q6222 and Q6223: 

Brightlane Q6223 delivers 90 Gbps of bandwidth, nearly 2x the capacity of currently available automotive switches. The non-blocking 12-port design can be configured from among the eight integrated 10G SerDes ports, four integrated 2.5G SerDes ports, and two integrated 1000Base-T1 PHYs available.

Brightlane Q6222 contains nine ports for 60 Gbps, with five integrated 10G SerDes ports, four integrated 2.5G SerDes ports, and two integrated 1000Base-T1 PHYs available for selection.

The number of automotive Ethernet ports increases with the evolution of automotive E/E architecture

As automotive E/E architecture evolves, the penetration of automotive Ethernet is on the rise, and the demand for Ethernet node chips will also jump in the future, with over 100 Ethernet ports per intelligent vehicle.

So far, production vehicle do not have many Ethernet ports, which are often used in subsystems such as IVI, in-vehicle communication, gateway, and domain controller. A vehicle network architecture with Ethernet as the backbone has yet to be built. In the future, with the production of models based on zonal architecture, automotive Ethernet will be used much more widely in vehicle network communication architecture, and by then the number of automotive Ethernet communication ports will swell accordingly.

The new products or updated/iterative products released by chip vendors such as Broadcom and NXP tend to have increasing communication ports.

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In May 2022, Broadcom announced BCM8958X, a high bandwidth monolithic automotive Ethernet switch device that features 16 Ethernet ports of which up to six are 10 Gbps capable (XFI or PCIe x1 4.0 with SRIOV), as well as integrated 1000BASE-T1 and 100BASE-T1 PHYs. 

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1 Evolution of Automotive Network Topology
1.1 Automotive Network Communication Bus
1.1.1 Automotive Communication Falls into Wireless Communication and Wired Communication by Communication Connection Form
1.1.2 Different Buses Provide Different Functions for In-vehicle Communication 
1.1.3 Typical Technical Features of Conventional Automotive Network Bus
1.1.4 Autonomous Driving Drives Application of Ethernet in the Automotive Field
1.1.5 Automotive Backbone Network Will Shift to Ethernet  
1.1.6 Classification of Automotive Communication Network Protocols
1.1.7 Comparison between In-vehicle Communication Bus Technologies
1.2 Automotive Network Topology
1.2.1 Automotive Network Topology Determines Network Features 
1.2.2 Typical Network Topology of In-vehicle Communication
1.2.3 Evolution of In-vehicle Network Topology (1)
1.2.4 Evolution of In-vehicle Network Topology (2)
1.2.5 Flexible Automotive Ethernet Network Topology  
1.2.6 Comparison of In-vehicle Network Architecture between Model Y, Ford Mach-E and Volkswagen ID.4  
1.3 Future EEA Will Need Automotive Ethernet as the Backbone Network
1.3.1 Automotive Network Will Evolve from Domain Architecture to Zonal Architecture with the Evolution of Automotive E/E Architecture
1.3.2 CAN/LIN Plays a Dominant Role in the In-vehicle Network (IVN) Topology in the Stage of Functional Domain Control  
1.3.3 Automotive Ethernet Is Widely Used in IVN Topology in the Stage of Cross-domain Integration
1.3.4 Ethernet Becomes the Backbone Network of In-vehicle Communication in the Stage of Central Integrated Computing 
1.3.5 Automotive Ethernet Communication Architecture  
1.3.6 Vehicle Functional Safety Practices in Vehicle Network Communication Architecture (1)
1.3.7 Vehicle Functional Safety Practices in Vehicle Network Communication Architecture (2) 
1.3.8 Vehicle Functional Safety Practices in Vehicle Network Communication Architecture (3) 
1.3.9 Aquantia's Future ADAS Vehicle Network Architecture 
1.3.10 NXP’s Future Vehicle Network Architecture 
1.3.11 Broadcom's Forecast for the Future Automotive Backbone Network
1.3.12 Renesas' Vision for the Future Vehicle Network Architecture
1.3.13 Huawei's Computing and Communication Architecture

2.1 Development and Trends of Automotive Ethernet Technology
2.1 Overview of Automotive Ethernet
2.1.1 Seven-layer Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model of Automotive Ethernet
2.1.2 The Development of Automotive Ethernet Is Driven by BMW 
2.1.3 Advantages of Automotive Ethernet
2.1.4 Requirements of Automotive Communication Networks of Different Driving Levels for Performance, Computing Power and Speed 
2.1.5 Automotive Ethernet Is Currently the Fastest Communication Solution in the Vehicle  
2.1.6 How Does the Automotive Ethernet Circuit Transmit Data?
2.1.7 Cases of Automotive Ethernet Signal Transmission
2.1.8 Automotive Ethernet Interface Types
2.1.9 Vector Launched Automotive Ethernet Interfaces that Support 10BASE-T1S Standard 
2.1.10 Main Transmission Media of Automotive Ethernet
2.1.11 Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer Connection Harnesses: IEEE 100BASE-T1 and IEEE 1000BASE-T1 
2.1.12 Automotive Ethernet Testing 
2.1.13 Test Methods for Automotive Ethernet (1)
2.1.14 Test Methods for Automotive Ethernet (2)
2.1.15 Test Methods for Automotive Ethernet (3)
2.2 Automotive Ethernet Alliance, Technical Standards and Network Protocols
2.2.1 Four Major Global Automotive Ethernet Standardization Organizations and Their Division of Labor (1)
2.2.2 Four Major Global Automotive Ethernet Standardization Organizations and Their Division of Labor (2)
2.2.3 Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer Standards
2.2.4 Automotive Ethernet Communication Networks and Protocols
2.2.5 Interconnection & Compatibility (C&S) Test Certification Is the Threshold for Interface Chips (1)
2.2.6 Interconnection & Compatibility (C&S) Test Certification Is the Threshold for Interface Chips (2)
2.2.7 Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer Complies with BroadR-Reach
2.3 Development of Automotive Ethernet Technology
2.3.1 Development Roadmap of Automotive Ethernet Technology
2.3.2 SOME/IP Communication Protocol Service-oriented SOME/IP Communication Protocol Supports SOA Upgrade Application of SOME/IP Protocol in In-vehicle Infotainment System
2.3.3 How Does Automotive Ethernet Handle Real-time Critical Data Transmission? Methods of Automotive Ethernet Handling Real-time Critical Data Transmission (1) Features of TTE Methods of Automotive Ethernet Handling Real-time Critical Data Transmission (2) Development History of Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) Technical Standard Sets of TSN TSN Standard for Automotive Ethernet: Development of IEEE P802.1DG Main Supporters of TSN TSN Delay: IEEE 802.1AS 2020 Clock Synchronization Core of L4 Autonomous Driving System EnjoyMove Technology’s TSN Protocol Stack Empowers Li L9 FastCTR Released "Shenxing" DDS Middleware and TSN Ethernet Gateway 

3 In-vehicle Network Communication (Interface) Chips and Technology Trends 
3.1 Conventional Bus chips
3.1.1 Overview of Conventional Bus chips Classification Development of Chinese CAN Transceiver Chips The Demand for CAN FD Chips Rises with the Development of Automotive Electrification, Connectivity, Intelligence and Sharing Automotive CAN/LIN SBC Chip TI's TCAN4550-Q1 SBC Chip and Its Advantages (1) TI's TCAN4550-Q1 SBC Chip and Its Advantages (2) SBC Chip Integrating Power Management, CAN and LIN Typical Application Cases of CAN Transceivers
3.1.2 CAN/LIN Chip Competitive Landscape and Product Selection of Suppliers Competitive Landscape of Chinese CAN/LIN Interface Chip Market List of Foreign CAN/CAN FD/LIN Interface Chip Vendors and Product Selection (1) List of Foreign CAN/CAN FD/LIN Interface Chip Vendors and Product Selection (2) List of Chinese CAN/CAN FD/LIN Interface Chip Vendors and Product Selection (1) List of Chinese CAN/CAN FD/LIN Interface Chip Vendors and Product Selection (2) 
3.2 Classification and Use Cases of Automotive Ethernet Chips
3.2.1 Classification of Automotive Ethernet Chips
3.2.2 Automotive Ethernet Chips Require EMC Anti-interference and Immunity 
3.2.3 Usage of Automotive Ethernet Chips in Different Application Scenarios
3.2.4 The Value of Automotive Ethernet Chips in a Single Vehicle Will Be High 
3.2.5 Application Cases of Automotive Ethernet Chips (1)
3.2.6 Application Cases of Automotive Ethernet Chips (2)
3.2.7 Application Cases of Automotive Ethernet Chips (3)
3.2.8 Application Cases of Automotive Ethernet Chips (4)
3.3 Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips
3.3.1 Overview of Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips More Than Two Automotive Ethernet Nodes Should Be Connected by Ethernet Switches Functions of Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips are Tightly Bound with AUTOSAR Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips Bound with AUTOSAR Each Zonal Gateway in the Central Computing Zonal Architecture Contains an Ethernet Switch Specific Applications and Deployment Locations of Automotive Ethernet Switches Automotive TSN Switch Chips Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switches (1) Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switches (2) Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switches (3) Elektrobit’s Automotive Ethernet Switch Firmware for In-vehicle Communication 
3.3.2 Competitive Landscape and Product Selection of Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips Competitive Landscape of Global Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Market List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Vendors and Product Selection (1) List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Vendors and Product Selection (2) List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Vendors and Product Selection (3) Competitive Landscape of Chinese Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Market List of Chinese Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Vendors (1) List of Chinese Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Vendors (1)
3.3.3 China’s Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Market Size Prices of Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips China’s Automotive Ethernet Switch Chip Market Size, 2022-2025E
3.4 Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY) Chips
3.4.1 Overview of Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY) Chips Working Principle of Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer Interfaces Mainstream Chip Architecture of Automotive Ethernet Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Interface Integration Cases (1) Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Interface Integration Cases (2) Cases of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips (1) Cases of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips (2)
3.4.2 Competitive Landscape and Product Selection of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Market Competitive Landscape of Global Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Market List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors and Product Selection (1) List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors and Product Selection (2) List of Foreign Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors and Product Selection (3) Competitive Landscape of China’s Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Market List of Chinese Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors (1) List of Chinese Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors (2) List of Chinese Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Vendors (3)
3.4.3 China’s Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Market Size Usage of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips in ADAS Prices of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips Estimated Demand for Ethernet PHY Chips for Passenger Car ADAS in China Estimated Demand for Ethernet PHY Chips for Passenger Car IVI Systems in China China’s Passenger Car Ethernet PHY Chip Market Size, 2022-2025E 
3.5 Future Technology Trends of In-vehicle Network Communication
3.5.1 Technology Trend 1 MIPI A-PHY V1.0 for Data Transmission of High-level Autonomous Vehicles MIPI Alliance Releases A-PHY v1.1, Adding New Implementation Options to Automotive SerDes Interface Core Advantages of MIPI A-PHY Communication Protocol Trend 1 Trend 2 Trend 3
3.5.2 Technology Trend 2 Introduction to PCIe Switch Communication Features of PCIe Switches (1) Features of PCIe Switches (2) PCIe Switches Are Very Suitable for Automotive Networks in the AI Era. Application of PCIe Switches in the Future Vehicle Network Architecture (1) Application of PCIe Switches in the Future Vehicle Network Architecture (2) Application Cases of PCIe Switches (1) Application Cases of PCIe Switches (2) PCIe Switch Trend 1 PCIe Switch Trend 2 PCIe Switch Trend 3
3.5.3 Technology Trend 3 The Higher the Level of Autonomous Driving, the Greater the Demand for High-speed In-vehicle Communication Network Application of Automotive Ethernet in the Evolution of Vehicle Network Architecture High-level Autonomous Driving Requires 10G+ Interconnection Bandwidth Automotive Ethernet Trend 1
3.5.4 Technology Trend 4 The Application of Low-cost 10M Automotive Ethernet Deserves Attention in Addition to Multi-Gigabit Automotive Ethernet Automotive Ethernet Trend 2
3.5.5 Technology Trend 5

4 Foreign In-Vehicle Communication (Interface) Chip Companies
4.1 Marvell
4.1.1 Profile
4.1.2 Global Business Center
4.1.3 Business Layout
4.1.4 Development History
4.1.5 Acquired Aquantia to Enter the Automotive Network Market 
4.1.6 Aquantia Multi-Gig Ethernet Is Applied to NVIDIA's L4/L5 Xavier and Pegasus Computing Platforms 
4.1.7 Roadmap of Automotive Ethernet Switches
4.1.8 Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switches
4.1.9 Cases of Automotive Ethernet Switches
4.1.10 Block Diagram and Technical Features of 88Q5050 Ethernet Switch Chip
4.1.11 Roadmap of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips
4.2 NXP
4.2.1 Profile
4.2.2 Acquisition of OmniPHY, a Provider of Automotive Ethernet Subsystem Technology
4.2.3 Distribution of Manufacturing Bases
4.2.4 Customer Base Analysis
4.2.5 Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips
4.2.6 Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips
4.2.7 Cases of Ethernet Switches (1)
4.2.8 Cases of Ethernet Switches (2)
4.2.9 Typical Application of Ethernet Switches and PHYs
4.2.10 Four Typical Application Modes of SJA1105
4.2.11 Comparison of Performance and Parameters between Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips
4.2.12 Block Diagram and Technical Features of TJA1101 Automotive Ethernet 100BASE-T1 PHY  
4.3 Broadcom
4.3.1 Profile
4.3.2 M&A History
4.3.3 Automotive Ethernet Pioneer
4.3.4 BroadR-Reach Automotive Ethernet Physical Layer Technology
4.3.5 Automotive Ethernet Switch Product Line
4.3.6 The World's First 50G Automotive Ethernet Switch Solution 
4.3.7 Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Product Line
4.3.8 Multi-Gigabit Automotive Ethernet PHYs with MACsec Support
4.4 Microchip
4.4.1 Profile
4.4.2 Product Layout and Application Fields
4.4.3 Automotive Ethernet PHY Chip Product Line 
4.4.4 First Automotive-Qualified 10BASE-T1S Ethernet PHYs
4.4.5 Single-chip Solutions Integrating CAN FD Controllers and Transceivers
4.5 TI
4.5.1 Profile
4.5.2 Global Manufacturing Layout
4.5.3 Ethernet Physical Layer Chip Layout
4.5.4 Gigabit Automotive Ethernet PHYs
4.5.5 System Framework and Technical Features of DP83TG720S-Q1 Automotive Ethernet PHY

5 Chinese In-Vehicle Communication (Interface) Chip Companies
5.1 Realtek
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Diverse Automotive Chips
5.1.3 Automotive Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) PHY Chips with MACsec Encryption and Decryption 
5.1.4 Automotive Ethernet Solutions
5.1.5 RTL9047AA-VC Automotive Ethernet Switch
5.2 Motorcomm
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 Product Layout and Business
5.2.3 Automotive Network Communication Chips
5.2.4 Automotive Network Communication Chips
5.2.5 Comparison of Automotive 100M PHY Chips between Motorcomm and International Giants 
5.2.6 Value and Cost of Automotive Ethernet PHY Chips Per Vehicle
5.2.7 Core Technologies and Ongoing R&D Projects in the Field of Automotive Ethernet
5.3 JLSemi
5.3.1 Profile
5.3.2 Development History
5.3.3 Two Core Technologies
5.3.4 JL3xx1 Automotive Gigabit Ethernet PHY Chip
5.3.5 JL3113 Automotive Gigabit Ethernet PHY Chip
5.4 Ingenic
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 Four-category Layout: Computing + Storage + Simulation + SoC 
5.4.3 Fabless Model
5.4.4 Automotive Communication Chips Mainly Adopt CAN/LIN, Green PHY and G.Vn
5.4.5 CAN FD Transceiver Solutions
5.5 Silicon IoT
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Design Process of Automotive-grade Products
5.5.3 Development History of CAN/CAN FD Chips
5.5.4 Comparison between 5V/3.3V CAN/CAN FD Interface Chips
5.5.5 Typical Automotive CAN/CAN FD Application Solutions (1): Typical Application of SIT1044
5.5.6 Typical Automotive CAN/CAN FD Application Solutions (2): Typical Application of SIT1043
5.6 Neurobit
5.6.1 Profile
5.6.2 Automotive Network Communication Products
5.6.3 Automotive Network Communication Products: KY3001 AUTBUS Chips
5.7 Tasson
5.7.1 Profile
5.7.2 Development of Automotive-grade TSN Switch Chips
5.7.3 Automotive TSN Switch Chip: TAS2010
5.8 KunGao Micro
5.8.1 Profile
5.8.2 Automotive Ethernet Chip Solutions
5.8.3 Features of Automotive Ethernet Chips

6 In-vehicle Network Communication Architectures and Chips of OEMs
6.1 Volkswagen
6.1.1 Network Architectures of ICAS1 and ICAS3
6.1.2 ICAS1: Body Control Network Architecture
6.2 Tesla
6.2.1 Evolution of In-vehicle Communication Architecture
6.2.2 In-vehicle Communication of Model Cars
6.2.3 Automotive Ethernet of AP3.0
6.2.4 Communication Design in Model S Plaid Cockpit Controller 
6.3 Mercedes-Benz
6.3.1 Communication Design of NTG7 Cockpit PCB (1)
6.3.2 Communication Design of NTG7 Cockpit PCB (2) 
6.3.3 Installation of Communication Chips in CIVIC System BB 
6.3.4 Selection of Automotive Ethernet Chips for NTG6 Cockpit PCB
6.3.5 Installation of Ethernet Switch in the Second-generation MBUX
6.4 Volvo
6.4.1 Communication Design of SPA  
6.4.2 Body Electronics Communication Network Architecture
6.4.3 Communication Architecture Design of Body Control Module (BCM)
6.5 Great Wall Motor
6.5.1 Automotive Communication in the Fourth-generation E/E Architecture
6.5.2 The Backbone Network In the Next-generation Architecture Will Transmit Information through Automotive Ethernet 
6.6 Others
6.6.1 Automotive Ethernet Switch Chips of BYD and BMW
6.6.2 Installation of Automotive Ethernet Chips in IVI of Great Wall and NIO
6.6.3 Automotive Network Communication Architecture of Audi A6
6.6.4 Automotive Network Communication Architecture of Li Auto
6.6.5 Development Route of Xpeng’s Automotive Network Communication Architecture
6.6.6 Communication Design in Cockpit Domain Controllers of Hyundai Genesis GV60

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