Automotive Digital Key Industry Trends Research Report, 2024
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Automotive Digital Key Industry Trends Research Report, 2024 released by ResearchInChina highlights the following:
20120114.gifForecast for automotive digital key market;
20120114.gifDigital key standard specifications and communication technology trends;
20120114.gifDigital key industry chain and competitive landscape;
20120114.gifOEMs’ digital key solutions and planning; 
20120114.gifDigital key chip vendors; 
20120114.gifChinese and foreign digital key system suppliers.

1. Digital keys enter the UWB era

In recent three years, the Chinese automotive digital key market has been burgeoning, with the installation rate increasing by more than 10 percentage points every year. In 2023, the installations of digital keys in passenger cars in China surged by 53.0% year on year; the installation rate jumped by 10.2 percentage points on the previous year to 33.0%.

In terms of technology route, UWB has become a “starlet" in the field of digital keys after BLE and NFC got on vehicles. In 2023, UWB digital keys were largely seen in passenger cars in China, with installations rocketing by 371.4% on an annual basis and the installation rate up to 1.1%, much higher than in the previous year.  

key 1_副本.png

In 2023, 14 auto brands (NIO, Denza, ZEEKR, Lynk & Co, BMW, Toyota, BYD, Xpeng, AITO, etc.) used UWB keys, compared with only 3 brands (NIO, Denza and HiPhi) in 2022. Among the popular models launched in the last six months, Xpeng X9, AITO M9, ZEEKR 007 and Yangwang U8 are all equipped with UWB keys. 

key 2_副本.png

Also auto brands are installing UWB keys in more vehicles. For example, almost all NIO’s new models are equipped with UWB keys as standard; Denza D9 Flagship/N7/N8 and ZEEKR 007/009/X all feature UWB keys. In addition, OEMs are working hard on the plan of making UWB keys available in vehicles, increasing the market demand:   

    • Tesla APP now supports the ultra-wideband (UWB) key in the 2024.2.3 version of the APP for iPhones.  
    •  BYD UWB digital keys have been installed in Han EV Qianshancui, Tang DM-p Ares Edition, Denza N7, Yangwang U8 and other models, and will be seen in Sea Lion 07 and Leopard 5 among others in the future. 
    • In March 2024, Lynk & Co 08 EM-P started the beta test of the 1.3.0 version of Flyme Auto, and added the UWB key in Meizu mobile phones. In addition, Lynk & Co 08 EM-P is adapting to the UWB function of iPhone, which will be available to subsequent editions.

2. UWB adds functions such as vehicle search and APA to digital keys.

With the increasing number of components such as sensors and communication modules in vehicles, system integration and functional scalability have become the ways to help OEMs reduce costs and improve efficiency. In addition to replacing conventional keys, digital keys are being integrated with such functions as remote vehicle control, in-cabin monitoring, and APA.    

Based on the characteristics of high-precision positioning, UWB can add vehicle search, APA and other functions to digital keys. For example, Meizu mobile phones can leverage UWB to automatically record vehicle locations, guide users to search cars, and find cars even without network.

Automatic record: The vehicle can automatically record the parking environment after being engaged in the P gear, and upload key information such as the parking floor, parking space number and parking duration to the user's mobile phone through Flyme Link.

Vehicle search guide: There is no need to backtrack. The optimal search route is planned through spatial positioning, and cross-floor search is supported. All sensors of IVI and the mobile phone, coupled with spatial positioning algorithms, accurately spot the vehicle. The direction, distance and floor information of the vehicle can be presented intuitively on the functional components of the mobile phone, providing a guide to find the vehicle.   

Vehicle search without network: In a parking lot without network or GPS signal, the mobile phone can automatically switch to the unconnected navigation mode, and guide the way through spatial positioning to find where the vehicle is parked.  

Lynk & Co 08 EM-P is the first model installed with Flyme Auto, featuring Meizu's vehicle search function.

3. Compatibility is the bottleneck that digital keys need to break urgently.

As the entrance to vehicle intelligence, digital keys need to solve the compatibility problems in multiple aspects: compatibility between software and hardware modules, e.g., BLE, NFC, UWB and NearLink; compatibility between standards of different alliances, e.g., CCC and ICCE; compatibility between communication protocols between cars and mobile phones of different brands.        

Standard compatibility between alliances is being improved.

    • In November 2023, FiRa and the CCC formed the Joint Ultra-wideband MAC PHY Working Group (JUMPWG) aimed at developing and maintaining the UWB technology specifications used in the CCC Digital Key. CCC members include most OEMs, while FiRa members include most mobile phone or consumer electronics vendors. The partnership will promote the integration of UWB standards between the two parties and encourage the application of UWB technology at vehicles.
    • NearLink, the next-generation short-range wireless connection technology led by Huawei, can be compatible with Bluetooth and WiFi ecosystems and interoperate with existing devices. In the future, following SLB (a benchmark for WiFi) and SLE (a benchmark for Bluetooth), NearLink will launch SLP (a benchmark for UWB) to integrate more communication standards.

Two paths for OEMs to break through protocol barriers.

Communication compatibility between vehicles and mobile phones of different brands is particularly important in key sharing scenarios. NIO and BYD represent two different paths.  

    • To circumvent Apple's protocol restrictions, NIO has developed its own NIO Phone. In addition, Geely Meizu, Huawei HarmonyOS, Xiaomi and other OEMs engaged in mobile phones will follow suit and take the lead in the deep integration of IVI and mobile phones in the same system.
    • BYD was certified by Car Key MFI in 2022, becoming China’s first brand that is compatible with both Android and Apple systems. At present, BYD’s NFC digital keys are compatible with all mainstream mobile phone brands, including Huawei, Apple, Xiaomi, OPPO, VIVO, OnePlus and HONOR. This will be the path taken by most OEMs (including foreign brands). BMW’s digital keys not only cover iOS platforms but also become available on Android platforms. Since November 2022, BMW’s digital keys have gradually spread to Huawei, HONOR, Xiaomi, vivo and OPPO.    

key 3_副本.png


Suppliers integrate software and hardware.

The integration of software and hardware aim to solve such problems as software and hardware from different suppliers, unsmooth system connection and inefficient OTA updates. INGEEK believes that the integration of software and hardware is a reliable solution, and hopes to redefine chips, connections and cloud products and enhance product experience.  

INGEEK's latest Intelligent Connection System (ICS) is composed of an ecosystem connection platform (DK HUB), a software and hardware integrated system (DK System) and a tool kit (DK Toolkit), realizing mass production of software-hardware integration. In 2023, INGEEK secured software-hardware integration OEM mass production projects from four or five OEMs, and supported Dongfeng Voyah at first.   

In April 2023, INGEEK and Tencent Intelligent Mobility jointly launched the “Digital Key Cloud". Through the standardized digital key products and services, it can save a lot of time and deployment costs required for individually customized solutions, and solve the problem of difficult cooperation between cars, cloud, Apps and more when installing digital keys in different models.    

key 4_副本.png

4. Biometrics is expected to be a supplement to digital keys to build next-generation automotive intelligent entry systems.

Biometrics is joining automotive intelligent entry systems. Palmprint and face recognition prevails in the application cases of OEMs and suppliers, especially in unconscious entry and unconscious startup.

BYD released a palm key in January 2024, allowing users to unlock vehicles through palmprint recognition. This marks BYD's foray into the biometric key field to build all-scenario intelligent entry experience.

At CES 2024, Continental presented the “Face Authentication Display”, a two-stage access control system based on biometric user recognition that uses special camera systems mounted externally on the vehicle’s B-pillar and invisibly behind the driver display console. Thanks to biometric face authentication, the vehicle opens and starts up as soon as it detects a registered user.

key 5.png

Off-vehicle application of Continental Face Authentication Display: Advanced facial authentication technology, which Continental integrates into the vehicle’s B-pillar, makes it possible to open the driver’s door without a key or other means of access.

key 6.png

In-vehicle application of Continental Face Authentication Display: The face authentication camera integrated invisibly behind the driver display for secure start and digital payment function

Even if biometrics comes into the market, digital keys will still be the protagonist in the next 5-10 years. This is mainly because mobile phones play a leading role in consumers' daily lives and collect most of users' data and information. The integration of mobile phones and IVI is a megatrend. Mobile phones, as the carrier of digital keys, have enormous potential. In the next stage of automotive intelligent entry systems, biometrics is expected to complement digital keys to build next-generation automotive intelligent access systems.  

1 Forecast for Automotive Digital Key Market 
1.1 Introduction to Digital Keys
1.1.1 Development History
1.1.2 Digital Key Application Scenarios
1.1.3 Trends of Digital Key Application Scenarios
1.1.4 Digital Key Technology Roadmap
1.1.5 Digital Key System Architecture
1.1.6 Digital Key Carrier and Connection Process
1.1.7 Digital Key Hardware Architecture
1.2 Overall Digital Key Market
1.2.1 Digital Key Market Features (1)
1.2.2 Digital Key Market Features (2)
1.2.3 Digital Key Market Features (3)
1.2.4 Digital Key Market Features (4)
1.3 Features of Bluetooth Key Market
1.4 Features of NFC Key Market 
1.5 Features of BLE+NFC Key Market
1.6 Features of UWB Key Market
1.6.1 Features of BLE+NFC+UWB Market
1.6.2 Market Features of UWB Solutions
1.6.3 Market Features of BLE+UWB Solutions
1.6.4 Market Features of NFC+UWB Solutions
1.7 Digital Key Market Size Forecast 
1.7.1 Digital Key Installation Rate and Market Size Forecast
1.7.2 Forecast for Market Share of Each Segment
1.7.3 Forecast for Trends of Digital Key Fusion Solutions
1.7.4 Digital Key Market Size Forecast
1.8 PEPS and Digital Keys
1.8.1 Introduction to PEPS System
1.8.2 Market Features of PEPS (1)
1.8.3 Market Features of PEPS (2)
1.8.4 Market Features of PEPS (3)
1.8.5 PEPS Market Size
1.8.6 Global PEPS Suppliers
1.8.7 Chinese PEPS Suppliers
2 Digital Key Standard Specifications and Communication Technology Trends 
2.1 Standard Specifications and Certification of Digital Keys
2.2 Car Connectivity Consortium (CCC)
2.2.1 Evolution of CCC Standards
2.2.2 System Architecture of CCC 3.0
2.2.3 CCC Digital Key Ecosystem
2.2.4 CCC Digital Key Certification
2.2.5 Members of CCC 
2.3 FiRa Consortium 
2.4 Intelligent Car Connectivity Industry Ecosystem Alliance (ICCE)
2.4.1 Evolution of ICCE Digital key Standard Specifications
2.4.2 Members of ICCE
2.5.1 Members of ICCOA
2.5.2 ICCOA Digital Key 2.0
2.6.1 Organizational Architecture
2.6.2 Digital Key Solutions
2.7 Application Trends of Bluetooth in Digital Keys
2.7.1 Shipments of Bluetooth Devices
2.7.2 Composition of Bluetooth Key System
2.7.3 Core Bluetooth Key Technology
2.7.4 Core Applications of Bluetooth Keys in Vehicles
2.7.5 Application Trends of Bluetooth in Vehicles
2.8 Application Trends of NFC in Digital Keys
2.8.1 Features of NFC Key System
2.8.2 Composition of NFC Key System
2.8.3 Core Applications of NFC in Vehicles
2.8.4 Application Trends of NFC in Vehicles
2.9 Application Trends of UWB in Digital Keys
2.9.1 Features of UWB
2.9.2 Main Application Fields of UWB
2.9.3 Application Scenarios of UWB Digital Keys
2.9.4 Composition of UWB Digital Key System
2.9.5 Digital Key Launch Timetable of Major Automakers
2.9.6 UWB Key Installation Timetable of Mobile Phone Vendors 
2.9.7 Typical BLE+UWB+NFC Digital Key Configuration Solutions
2.9.8 Core Applications and Extended Applications of UWB Keys
2.9.9 Application Scenarios of UWB Keys in Vehicles (1)
2.9.10 Application Scenarios of UWB Keys in Vehicles (2)
2.9.11 Application Scenarios of UWB Keys in Vehicles (3)
2.9.12 Application Trends of UWB in Vehicles
2.9.13 Development Trends of UWB Keys (1)
2.9.14 Development Trends of UWB Keys (2)
2.9.15 Development Trends of UWB Keys (3)
2.10 Applications of NearLink in Digital Keys
2.10.1 Development History of NearLink
2.10.2 Communication Interfaces of NearLink
2.10.3 SparkLink Alliance
2.10.4 NearLink Standard Specifications
2.10.5 Commercial Applications of NearLink
2.10.6 Digital Key Solutions Based on NearLink
2.10.7 Application Trends of NearLink
2.11 Integration Trends of Digital key Functions
2.12 Collaborative Trends of Digital Keys and Biometric Keys

3 Digital Key Industry Chain and Competitive Landscape 
3.1 Digital Key Industry Chain
3.2 Digital Key Cost Composition and Demand
3.2.1 NFC Key Cost Composition
3.2.2 BLE Key Cost Composition
3.2.3 NFC+BLE Key Cost Composition
3.2.4 BLE+NFC+NFC Key Cost Composition
3.2.5 Digital Key Cost
3.2.6 Market Demand for Key Components of Digital Keys
3.3 Digital Key Chip Competitive Landscape
3.3.1 BLE Chips
3.3.2 NFC Chips
3.3.3 UWB Chips
3.4 Competitive Landscape of Digital Key Suppliers 
3.4.1 Competitive Landscape of Digital Key Software Suppliers
3.4.2 Competitive Landscape of Digital Key System Integrators
3.4.3 Comparison between Digital Key System Solutions of Suppliers
3.5 Integration Trends of Software and Hardware of Digital Key Suppliers
3.6 Overseas Layout and Cooperation of Digital Key OEMs and Suppliers
3.7 Progress of OEMs and Suppliers in Globalization and Compatibility of Digital Keys
4 Digital Key Layout of OEMs
4.1 BYD
4.1.1 Features of Digital Key Business
4.1.2 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.1.3 NFC Digital Key Solutions
4.1.4 BLE+NFC Digital Key Solutions
4.1.5 BLE+NFC+UWB Key Solutions
4.1.6 Biometric Key Solutions
4.2 Tesla
4.2.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.2.2 Key Solutions
4.2.3 Bluetooth Keys
4.2.4 Card Keys
4.2.5 UWB Keys
4.2.6 Adaptation to Mobile Phones
4.3 Geely
4.3.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.3.2 Bluetooth Key Operation Process
4.4 Li Auto
4.4.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.4.2 Bluetooth Keys
4.5 Changan Automobile
4.5.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.5.2 Digital Key Types
4.5.3 How to Use Digital Keys
4.5.4 Digital Key Patents
4.6 BMW
4.6.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.6.2 Digital Key Development History
4.6.3 Digital Key Types
4.6.4 How to Use Digital Keys
4.6.5 Models Supported by NFC Keys
4.6.6 Models Supported by UWB Keys
4.7 NIO
4.7.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.7.2 Digital Key Types
4.7.3 Cloud Keys
4.7.4 NFC Keys
4.7.5 Smart Watch Keys
4.7.6 UWB Smart Keys
4.7.7 Digital Key Patents
4.8 Xpeng
4.8.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.8.2 Digital Key Layout
4.8.3 Mobile Phones Supported by Digital Keys 
4.8.4 Digital Key Security Solutions and Subsequent Planning
4.9 Lynk & Co
4.9.1 Installations and Installation Rate of Digital Keys
4.9.2 Features of Digital Keys
4.10 Wuling
4.11 Chery
4.12 Denza
4.13 ZEEKR

5 Typical Solutions of Digital Key Chip Vendors
5.1 NXP
5.1.1 Profile
5.1.2 Automotive Access Control System and Products
5.1.3 NFC+BLE Digital Key Solutions
5.1.4 NFC+BLE+UWB Digital Key Solutions
5.1.5 Automotive-grade UWB Chips 
5.1.6 Applications of Digital Key Chips 
5.2 ST
5.2.1 Profile
5.2.2 STPay-Mobile
5.2.3 Digital Key Solutions
5.2.4 Digital Key Partners
5.3 TI
5.3.1 Profile
5.3.2 Digital Key System Structure
5.3.3 Bluetooth Low Energy MCU
5.4 Apple
5.4.1 Profile
5.4.2 NFC Keys
5.4.3 UWB Keys
5.4.4 Key Certification 
5.5.1 Profile
5.5.2 Digital Key Solutions
5.6 Other Suppliers
6 Foreign Digital Key System Suppliers
6.1 Pektron
6.1.1 Profile
6.1.2 Digital Key Products
6.2 G+D Mobile Security
6.2.1 Profile
6.2.2 Main Digital Key Customers
6.2.3 IoV Business Layout  
6.2.4 Digital Key Cooperation Projects
6.3.1 Profile
6.3.2 Dynamics of Digital Key Business
6.3.3 Digital Key Solutions
6.3.4 Digital Key System
6.3.5 UWB Digital Key Solutions
6.4 Marquardt
6.4.1 Profile
6.4.2 PEPS
6.4.3 PnD3 Digital Key
6.5 Irdeto
6.5.1 Profile
6.5.2 Digital Key Solutions
6.5.3 Chinese Digital Key Customers
6.6 Bosch
6.6.1 Profile
6.6.2 Digital Key System
6.6.3 UWB Digital Key
6.6.4 UAES’ Digital Key Controllers
6.6.5 Features of UAES’ Digital Keys
6.7 Valeo
6.7.1 Profile
6.7.2 Smart Entry and Digital Key Business
6.7.3 UWB Keys  
6.8 Continental
6.8.1 Profile
6.8.2 Digital Key Development History
6.8.3 UWB Digital Key
6.8.4 Scalability of Digital Key Functions
6.8.5 Biometric Keys
6.9.1 Profile
6.9.2 Hella's UWB Keys
6.9.3 Hella's Biometric Keys
6.10.1 Profile
6.10.2 UWB Digital Key System
6.10.3 Launch of UWB Digital Keys with NIO
6.11 Huf Group
6.11.1 Profile
6.11.2 Mobile Phone Digital Key System
6.12.3 Mobile Phone Key Services and Technology
6.11.4 Communication Technology of Mobile Phone Key System
7 Chinese Digital Key System Suppliers
7.1.1 Profile
7.1.2 Digital Key Products by Level
7.1.3 Cases of Digital Key Products
7.1.4 The Latest Vehicle Connectivity System
7.1.5 Digital Key Cloud
7.1.6 Digital Key Application Scenarios
7.1.7 Digital Key APP
7.1.8 Crucial Cooperation in Digital Key Filed
7.1.9 Digital Key Partners
7.2 YF Tech
7.2.1 Profile
7.2.2 Smart Entry and Interconnected System
7.2.3 Digital Key Product Matrix
7.2.4 Digital Key System Framework
7.2.5 Digital Key Configuration Solutions
7.2.6 Digital Key Security Mechanism
7.2.7 Digital Key Application Scenarios
7.2.8 Advantages of Digital Key Cooperation
7.2.9 Customers and Ecological Partners
7.3.1 Profile
7.3.2 UWB-based Automotive Products
7.3.3 UWB Digital Keys
7.3.4 UWB radar
7.4.1 Profile
7.4.2 Digital Key Development Route
7.4.3 They Next-generation Digital Key
7.4.4 Digital Key Technology Innovation
7.5 Jingwei Hirain
7.5.1 Profile
7.5.2 Automotive Electronic Accessories
7.5.3 Digital Key Products and Customers
7.5.4 Body Domain Controllers and PEPS Products
7.6.1 Profile
7.6.2 Digital Key Products
7.6.3 Digital Key Architecture
7.7 TsingCar
7.7.1 Profile
7.7.2 UWB Digital Key Solutions
7.7.3 UWB Application Scenarios
7.8 Vecentek
7.8.1 Profile
7.8.2 Digital Key Solutions
7.9 Shanghai TrustKernel
7.9.1 Profile
7.9.2 Digital Key Products
7.9.3 Digital Key Solutions
7.9.4 Bluetooth Key Solutions
7.9.5 UWB Key Solutions
7.9.6 Major Customers
7.10 Sirun
7.10.1 Profile
7.10.2 Digital Key Solutions
7.11.1 Profile
7.11.2 Digital Key Solutions
7.12 RF-star
7.12.1 Profile
7.12.2 Digital Key Solutions
7.13 ZLG
7.13.1 Profile
7.13.2 Digital Key Solutions
7.13.3 PEPS Solutions

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Insight into intelligent driving: ECARX self-develops intelligent driving chips, and L2.5 installation soared by 175% year on year.   Based on the 2023 version, the 2024 version of Monthly...

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