Global and China Automotive LiDAR Industry Report, 2021
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At the 2021 Shanghai Auto Show, Huawei shocked all automakers and suppliers. Huawei has directly and indirectly supported more than 10,000 engineers in the R&D of intelligent automobiles. Except production, Huawei covers almost all of aspects required for digital transformation of automobiles: automotive perception and decision-making, network communications, electric drive, batteries, electric control, cloud-road networks outside vehicles, R&D and marketing.

Compared with the previous R&D investment involved with 1,000 persons (such as Baidu), Huawei's R&D team consisting of 10,000 persons has greatly accelerated the upgrade pace of intelligent networking of China's auto industry. When other countries around the world are still worrying about the pandemic, China will enter the era of leading the development of global automotive intelligent networking from 2021.

Take LiDAR installation as an example, the new models with LiDAR mainly come from domestic automakers.

LiDAR 1_副本.png

On April 14, Xpeng's third mass production car, the P5, was launched. The biggest highlight is that it is equipped with two DJI Livox LiDARs, which can realize the NGP function on urban roads. Following NIO ET7, Great Wall Mocha, IM and SAIC ES33, P5 is another new model equipped with LiDAR.  

On April 17, the ARCFOX Alpha S Huawei HI equipped with three Huawei’s 96-channel LiDARs (installed on the center and both sides of the front) was officially unveiled; later, Changan’s model based on the Ark architecture will also be equipped with Huawei’s LiDAR.
The second model of Lixiang will also be equipped with LiDAR.

After years of development, automotive LiDAR technology roadmaps and products have been quite diversified. ResearchInChina has sorted out classification and composition of LiDAR, as shown in the figure below.

LiDAR 2.png

 Early, LiDAR was mainly used in Robotaxi, Robotruck, Robobus, low-speed autonomous driving and roadside perception, etc. in small scale. The extensive application of LiDAR depends on the passenger car market.

As L4 technical solutions are gradually applied to L2-L3 models, LiDAR has been installed widely. LiDAR is currently available on production cars, and is mainly used to enhance ADAS functions and make new cars more appealing.

So far, domestic OEMs prefer to adopt hybrid solid-state LiDAR (including rotating mirror, prism, MEMS) solutions, mainly because:

First, it is easier to reduce the costs of hybrid solid-state LiDAR than mechanical LiDAR. Compared with pure solid-state (OPA, Flash) LiDAR, hybrid solid-state LiDAR technology is relatively mature and easier to commercialize.

Second, the Rotating Mirror Solution (represented by Valeo) is the first technical solution that meets National Automotive Standards and the performance requirements of automakers, and can be supplied in batches with controllable costs.

Xpeng P5 is equipped with two LiDARs (installed on both sides of the front bumper) from DJI Livox Horiz (customized version), which use the dual prism scanning solution, with the maximum detection distance of 150m (@10% reflectivity), the lateral field of view of 120 degrees, the angular resolution of 0.16°*0.2°, and the point cloud density equivalent to 144-channel LiDAR.

Xpeng Livox LiDAR uses 905nm wavelength at the transmitting side, APD at the receiving side, and double prism at the scanning side, namely Risley prism universal pointing system, with a unique non-repetitive scanning method.

LiDAR 3.png

ARCFOX Alpha S Huawei HI is the first model equipped with Huawei’s three 96-channel LiDARs on the center and both sides of the front. Released in December 2020, the LiDAR has the maximum detection distance of 150m (@10% reflectivity), the field of view of 120°×25°, and the resolution of 0.25°×0.26°.

Combined with other sensors (6 radars, and 13 cameras and 12 ultrasonic radars), the LiDARs can achieve 360° coverage.

LiDAR 4_副本.png

Huawei deploys long, medium and short-range LiDARs with a rotating mirror scanning architecture. Like Valeo Scala 1, Scala 2, the LiDARs comply with National Automotive Standards and are available on cars.

LiDAR 5.png

In addition to Huawei and Valeo, Innovusion and Luminar adopt similar technical solutions which however exploit two-axis rotating mirror scanning. They will soon conduct mass production for NIO ET7 and SAIC R ES33.

LiDAR 6.png

Luminar LiDAR features unique technical advantages: 1550nm wavelength (mainstream: 905nm) at the transmitting side, the low-cost InGaAs detector at the receiving side, self-made fourth-generation custom ASIC chips, and a 2D rotating mirror scanning method.

LiDAR 7.png

Luminar's Iris LiDAR based on this architecture has a detection distance of up to 250m (@5% reflectivity), and can detect dark objects on the road beyond 250m, with the resolution of up to 300PPD and the angular resolution of 120°×30°. At the same time, it has low costs. The price of IRIS for L2 advanced assisted driving is US$500; for L4/L5autonomous driving, it is less than US$1,000.
Innovusion and Luminar are alike in technology path. Both use 1550nm wavelength, fiber laser, and dual-axis rotating mirror scanning solution.

In January 2021, NIO ET7 was released, equipped with Innovusion's Falcon LiDAR. It will be mass-produced in 2022Q1.

LiDAR 8.png

In addition, RoboSense's MEMS LiDAR --- RS-LiDAR-M1 will soon be carried on Lucid Air. RoboSense released the RS-LiDAR-M1 SOP in January 2021, and will start mass production and delivery of the designated project in 2021Q2.

This product adopts RoboSense’s patented MEMS technology, with the farthest detection distance of 200m (150m@10%), the field of view of 120°×25°, and the resolution of 0.2°x0.2°.

In addition to RoboSense, players using MEMS technical solution include Innoviz, AEye, Pioneer, HESAI, Leishen Intelligent Systems, Zvision, etc. The third-generation product of Valeo’s is also based on MEMS technology.

Innoviz's InnovizOne will be installed on the new BMW iX in 2021; Valeo MEMS is expected to see mass production around 2022.

Main MEMS LiDAR Vendors and Their Typical Products

LiDAR 9.png
Source: ResearchInChina

1. Overview of LiDAR 
1.1 Introduction to LiDAR
1.2 Composition of LiDAR 
1.3 Ranging Principle of LiDAR 
1.4 Classification of LiDAR 
1.4.1 Mechanical type
1.4.2 Semi Solid State: MEMS
1.4.3 Pure Solid State: OPA
1.4.4 Pure Solid State: Flash
1.4.5 FMCW LiDAR
1.4.6 Comparison of LiDAR Technologies
1.5 Main Technical Parameters of LiDAR 
1.6 LiDAR Industry Chain
1.6.1 Upstream
1.6.2 Downstream

2. LiDAR Market and Trends

2.1 Application Fields
2.1.1 ADAS and Autonomous Driving Are the Core Application Fields of LiDAR
2.1.2 ADAS 
2.1.3 Robotaxi 
2.1.4 Robotruck 
2.1.5 Robobus
2.1.6 Unmanned Delivery
2.1.7 Roadside Perception

2.2 Technology and Trends
2.2.1 Core LiDAR Technology
2.2.2 Technical Solutions of Major Enterprises
2.2.3 Comparison between Core Products and Technical Solutions of Major Enterprises
2.2.4 Rotating Mirror/Prism Technology and Application
2.2.5 MEMS Scanning Technology and Application
2.2.6 Progress of VCSEL+ SPAD Technology
2.2.7 Progress of FMCW Technology 

2.3 companies and products
2.3.1 Massive Companies, Intensified Industrial Integration 
2.3.2 Reverse Takeover of Multiple Companies
2.3.3 Financing Has Become the Common Means of Subsistence for Companies
2.3.4 OEM Mass Production Cooperation Is Accelerating, and Local Vendors Are Particularly Prominent
2.3.5 Lower Price Helps LiDAR Installation
2.3.6 Mechanical LiDAR Enterprises and Products
2.3.7 Semi-solid-state LiDAR Enterprises and Products
2.3.8 Solid-state LiDAR Enterprises and Products
2.3.9 FMCW Enterprises and Products

3. Global LiDAR Vendors

3.1 Velodyne
3.1.1 Profile 
3.1.2 Velodyne Becomes a Leading LiDAR Company
3.1.3 Revenue and Net Income 
3.1.4 Revenue Structure 
3.1.5 Orders and Plans
3.1.6 LiDAR Production and Technical Cooperation
3.1.7 LiDAR Products Line 
3.1.8 Automotive LiDAR Products Matrix
3.1.9 Solid-state LiDAR---Velarray
3.1.10 Ultra-close-range LiDAR---VelaDome
3.1.11 The Smallest LiDAR in history---Velabit
3.1.12 The Latest Solid-state LiDAR---Velarray H800
3.1.13 Core LiDAR Technology
3.1.14 Partners
3.1.15 Cooperation with Veoneer
3.1.16 Cooperation with Hyundai Mobis
3.1.17 Cooperation with Baidu
3.1.18 Development Dynamics

3.2 Luminar
3.2.1 Profile 
3.2.2 Development History 
3.2.3 Revenue and Net Income
3.2.4 LiDAR Solutions 
3.2.5 “Iris” LiDAR 
3.2.6 “Iris” LiDAR Mass Production Plan
3.2.7 Hydra LiDAR 
3.2.8 Autonomous Driving Perception Software
3.2.9 Core LiDAR Technology 
3.2.10 Core Advantages of LiDAR
3.2.11 Partners
3.2.12 Cooperation Projects and Plans
3.2.13 Development Dynamics 

3.3 Innoviz
3.3.1 Profile 
3.3.2 Development History 
3.3.3 Production Bases
3.3.4 Products and Applications
3.3.5 LiDAR Product: InnovizOne
3.3.6 LiDAR Product: InnovizTwo
3.3.7 LiDAR Perception Software 
3.3.8 Core LiDAR Technology 
3.3.9 LiDAR Partners
3.3.10 SPAC Listing and Performance Forecast

3.4 Aeva
3.4.1 Profile 
3.4.2 Development History 
3.4.3 Main Products and Mass Production Plan
3.4.4 Core Technology
3.4.5 Technical Advantages
3.4.6 Application Market
3.4.7 Partners and Customers
3.4.8 SPAC Listing Plan
3.4.9 Performance Expectations

3.5 Ouster
3.5.1 Profile 
3.5.2 Development History 
3.5.3 Core Products
3.5.4 LiDAR Products
3.5.8 Core Technology
3.5.9 Competitive Advantages
3.5.10 LiDAR Application Fields 
3.5.11 Partners and Customers
3.5.12 Development Dynamics 

3.6 Ibeo
3.6.1 Profile 
3.6.2 Product Series 
3.6.3 LUX Series LiDAR Products 
3.6.4 4D Solid-state LiDAR: NEXT
3.6.5 Highlights of NEXT Technology
3.6.6 Cooperation Projects 

3.7 Valeo 
3.7.1 Profile 
3.7.2 LiDAR Products Roadmap 
3.7.3 Performance Comparison of SCALA1 and SCALA2 LiDAR
3.7.4 SCALA2 LiDAR Mass Production Project 
3.7.5 L3 Park4U Parking Product Equipped with LiDAR 
3.7.6 L4 Drive4U Autonomous Prototype Car Equipped with LiDAR 
3.7.7 Cooperation with Meituan
3.7.8 Major LiDAR Customers 
3.7.9 Development Dynamics 

3.8 LeddarTech
3.8.2 Global Network
3.8.3 LiDAR Products and Applications
3.8.4 Automotive LiDAR Technology 
3.8.5 Leddar Vision
3.8.6 Leddar Engine
3.8.7 LiDAR Solutions 
3.8.8 LiDAR Dataset: Pix Set
3.8.9 Cooperation Mode 
3.8.10 Leddar Ecosystem 
3.8.11 Development Dynamics 

3.9 Innovusion
3.9.2 Development History 
3.9.3 Series Product 
3.9.4 Next-generation LiDAR Falcon
3.9.5 LiDAR Technology 
3.9.6 Application Cases 

3.10 AEye
3.10.1 Profile 
3.10.2 LiDAR iDAR Platform 
3.10.3 LiDAR Product: AE100 and AE200
3.10.4 Solid-state LiDAR —4Sight M
3.10.5 Solid-state LiDAR —4Sight A
3.10.6 Competitive Advantages
3.10.7 Business Model
3.10.8 Partners
3.10.9 SPAC Listing
3.10.10 Performance Forecast

3.11 Quanergy
3.11.1 Profile 
3.11.2 LiDAR Products 
3.11.3 Automotive LiDAR Solutions 
3.11.4 M8
3.11.5 S3
3.11.6 S3 Automotive Solution 
3.11.7 Partners
3.11.8 Development Dynamics 

3.12 Cepton
3.12.2 Core Technology 
3.12.3 Main Products and Applications
3.12.4 Vista Series LiDAR Products 
3.12.5 Nova LiDAR 
3.12.6 Partners

3.13 Blickfeld
3.13.2 LiDAR (1)
3.13.3 LiDAR (2)
3.13.4 LiDAR (3)
3.13.5 Technology 
3.13.6 Partners

3.14 Insight LiDAR
3.14.2 Core Technology 
3.14.3 Main Products 

3.15 Sense Photonics
3.15.1 Profile 
3.15.2 LiDAR Products 
3.15.3 Core Technology 
3.15.4 Partners

3.16 Waymo
3.16.1 Profile 
3.16.2 LiDAR History and Products
3.16.3 Short-range LiDAR
3.16.4 LiDAR Technology 
3.16.5 LiDAR Solutions 
3.16.6 LiDAR Development Plan 

3.17 Mobileye
3.17.1 Profile 
3.17.2 LiDAR Layout and Plan
3.17.3 LiDAR Solutions 
3.17.4 LiDAR Technology 

3.18 Aurora
3.18.1 Profile 
3.18.2 LiDAR Product: FirstLight
3.18.3 Acquisition of LiDAR Companies
3.18.4 Acquisition of LiDAR Chip Companies
3.18.5 LiDAR Solutions 

3.19 Bosch 
3.19.1 Profile 
3.19.2 LiDAR Investment Layout
3.19.3 Automotive Long-range LiDAR 

3.20 Continental 
3.20.1 Profile
3.20.2 LiDAR Business Layout 
3.20.3 LiDAR Products Line 
3.20.4 3D Flash LiDAR
3.20.5 SRL1

3.21 Aptiv 
3.21.1 Profile 
3.21.2 LiDAR Investment Layout 
3.21.3 RoboTaxi Sensor Configuration

3.22 Veoneer
3.22.1 Profile 
3.22.2 LiDAR Products 
3.22.3 LiDAR Layout 
3.22.4 LiDAR Customers 

3.23 Xenomatix
3.23.1 Profile 
3.23.2 LiDAR Products 

3.24 Opsys
3.24.1 Profile 
3.24.2 Main Products 
3.24.3 Core Technology 

3.25 Infoworks
3.25.1 Profile 
3.25.2 Products 

3.26 Others
3.26.1 SiLC Technologies
3.26.2 Bridger Photonics
3.26.3 Baraja
3.26.4 Pioneer
3.26.5 Cruise
3.26.6 ZF 
3.26.7 LightWare

4. Chinese LiDAR Vendors

4.1 HESAI 
4.1.1 Profile 
4.1.2 Operation 
4.1.3 Main Products 
4.1.4 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar 40/40P
4.1.5 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar QT
4.1.6 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar 40M
4.1.7 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar 128
4.1.8 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar XT
4.1.9 Mechanical LiDAR Pandar Mind
4.1.10 Solid-state LiDAR Pandar GT 3.0
4.1.11 Pandora
4.1.12 LiDAR Technology 
4.1.13 Partners
4.1.14 Application Cases 

4.2 RoboSense 
4.2.1 Profile 
4.2.2 Development History 
4.2.3 Main Products and Solution 
4.2.9 3D LiDAR Seeker
4.2.10 Automotive Solid-state LiDAR RS-LiDAR-M1
4.2.11 Automotive Solid-state LiDAR RS-LiDAR-M1 SOP 
4.2.12 LiDAR LCDF Technology 
4.2.13 Perception Algorithm Software
4.2.14 LiDAR Solutions 
4.2.16 LiDAR Partners
4.2.17 LiDAR Application Cases 
4.2.18 Development Dynamics 

4.3 Huawei
4.3.1 LiDAR Layout 
4.3.2 LiDAR Products 
4.3.3 LiDAR Technology 
4.3.4 LiDAR Solutions 

4.4 DJI Livox 
4.4.1 Livox Profile 
4.4.2 Livox LiDAR Products 
4.4.3 Livox Hub
4.4.4 Core Technology 
4.4.5 LiDAR Solutions 
4.4.6 Livox LiDAR Application Cases 

4.5 Leishen Intelligent Systems 
4.5.1 Profile 
4.5.2 Development History 
4.5.3 Main Automotive LiDAR Products 
4.5.4 CX Series Multi-channel LiDAR 
4.5.5 CH Series Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR 
4.5.6 Core Technology of Hybrid Solid-state LiDAR 
4.5.7 MEMS Solid-state LiDAR 
4.5.8 Core Technology of MEMS Solid-state LiDAR 
4.5.9 Application Cases: Autonomous Driving 
4.5.10 Application Cases: CVIS 

4.6 Zvision 
4.6.1 Profile 
4.6.2 LiDAR Products and Solutions  
4.6.3 LiDAR Solutions 
4.6.4 Partners

4.7 Benewake 
4.7.1 Profile 
4.7.2 Development Path 
4.7.3 Main Products 
4.7.4 Horn-X2

4.8 SureStar 
4.8.1 Profile 
4.8.2 Development History 
4.8.3 Main Products 
4.8.4 R-Fans LiDAR 
4.8.5 C-Fans Series LiDAR 
4.8.6 Core Solid-state LiDAR Technology 
4.8.7 Application Cases 

4.9 Wanji Technology
4.9.1 Profile 
4.9.2 R&D and Production Layout 
4.9.3 Core Technology and Main Products 
4.9.4 Main Customers and Cases 
4.9.5 Development Strategy and Planning 

4.10 Litra 
4.10.1 Profile 
4.10.2 Products and Planning 
4.10.3 Core Technology 

4.11 Lorentech 
4.11.1 Profile 
4.11.2 LiDAR Products 
4.11.3 I/GSeries 

4.12 Liushen Optoelectronics
4.12.1 Profile 
4.12.2 Products and Solutions  

4.13 Richbeam 
4.13.1 Profile 
4.13.2 128-channel Automotive LiDAR Products 
4.13.3 32/64-channel LiDAR Products 

4.14 Tanway
4.14.1 Profile 
4.14.2 Core Technology 
4.14.3 Main Products and Plan 

4.15 GeniusPros Technologies
4.15.1 Profile 
4.15.2 Products and Solutions  

4.16 AODTBJ 
4.17 LuminWave 
4.18 Senfoto

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